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      Determinants of Sailors' Protective Behaviors in Fishing Spots against the Risks of Sunlight and Skin Cancer: A Qualitative Study in Iran

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          The growing rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma has been a great challenge for global health system. The present research aims to determine sailors' protective behaviors against the risks of sunlight and skin cancer in Iran.

          Materials and Methods

          The present research was qualitative in type, and its data were collected from August to December 2019. To this aim, 23 participants were recruited with whom semistructured interviews were held. The data collection continued until data saturation, and the interviews were coded in MAXQDA 10. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data.


          Analysis of sailors' perceptions and experiences revealed 7 categories: protective behaviors, hard personal and familial conditions, social interactions, poor social support, feeling of satisfaction, self-care, and fear.


          Sailors are prone to skin cancer due to their specific work conditions. Perceptions and determinants of skin cancer and protective behaviors against sunlight were identified among sailors. Promotion of protective behaviors and beliefs that impeded preventive behaviors are among issues that require special attention.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness.

          Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication.
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            A systematic review of worldwide incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

              Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer affecting white-skinned individuals and the incidence is increasing worldwide. This systematic review brings together 75 studies conducted over the past half century to look at geographical variations and trends worldwide in NMSC, and specifically incidence data are compared with recent U.K. cancer registry data. Following the development of a comprehensive search strategy, an assessment tool was adapted to look at the methodological quality of the eligible studies. Most of the studies focused on white populations in Europe, the U.S.A. and Australia; however, limited data were available for other skin types in regions such as Africa. Worldwide the incidence for NMSC varies widely with the highest rates in Australia [>1000/100, 000 person-years for basal cell carcinoma (BCC)] and the lowest rates in parts of Africa (< 1/100, 000 person-years for BCC). The average incidence rates in England were 76·21/100, 000 person-years and 22·65/100, 000 person-years for BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively, with highest rates in the South-West of England (121·29/100, 000 person-years for BCC and 33·02/100, 000 person-years for SCC) and lowest rates by far in London (0·24/100, 000 person-years for BCC and 14·98/100, 000 person-years for SCC). The incidence rates in the U.K. appear to be increasing at a greater rate when compared with the rest of Europe. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide. This review highlights a requirement for prevention studies in this area and the issues surrounding incomplete NMSC registration. Registration standards of NMSC should be improved to the level of other invasive disease. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.
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                Author and article information

                J Skin Cancer
                J Skin Cancer
                Journal of Skin Cancer
                17 July 2021
                : 2021
                1Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Hormozgan, Iran
                2Diabetes Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
                3Department of Public Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
                4Health System Research Unit, Urmia Health Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
                5Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Arash Kimyai Asadi

                Copyright © 2021 Ali Asadian et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Yazd University of Medical Science
                Research Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy


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