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      Identification of a novel RNA virus lethal to tilapia.

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          Tilapines are important for the sustainability of ecological systems and serve as the second most important group of farmed fish worldwide. Significant mortality of wild and cultured tilapia has been observed recently in Israel. The etiological agent of this disease, a novel RNA virus, is described here, and procedures allowing its isolation and detection are revealed. The virus, denominated tilapia lake virus (TiLV), was propagated in primary tilapia brain cells or in an E-11 cell line, and it induced a cytopathic effect at 5 to 10 days postinfection. Electron microscopy revealed enveloped icosahedral particles of 55 to 75 nm. Low-passage TiLV, injected intraperitoneally in tilapia, induced a disease resembling the natural disease, which typically presents with lethargy, ocular alterations, and skin erosions, with >80% mortality. Histological changes included congestion of the internal organs (kidneys and brain) with foci of gliosis and perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes in the brain cortex; ocular inflammation included endophthalmitis and cataractous changes of the lens. The cohabitation of healthy and diseased fish demonstrated that the disease is contagious and that mortalities (80 to 100%) occur within a few days. Fish surviving the initial mortality were immune to further TiLV infections, suggesting the mounting of a protective immune response. Screening cDNA libraries identified a TiLV-specific sequence, allowing the design of a PCR-based diagnostic test. This test enables the specific identification of TiLV in tilapines and should help control the spread of this virus worldwide.

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          Author and article information

          J. Clin. Microbiol.
          Journal of clinical microbiology
          Dec 2014
          : 52
          : 12
          [1 ] Department of Poultry and Fish Diseases, The Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, Israel.
          [2 ] Department of Cell Research and Immunology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
          [3 ] The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
          [4 ] Department of Animal Facility, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.
          [5 ] Ein Gev Fisheries, Kibbutz Ein Gev, Israel.
          [6 ] Dan Fish Farms, Kibbutz Dan, Upper Galilee, Israel.
          [7 ] Department of Food Science, Section of Veterinary Pathology, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
          [8 ] Department of Cell Research and Immunology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel eranbac@post.tau.ac.il.
          Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


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