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      Actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de extractos de hojas de Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray “arrayán” frente a patógenos de origen clínico Translated title: Antibacterial and antifungal activity from leaf extracts of Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray “myrtle” against pathogens of clinical origin

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          Abstract

          En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana de Luma chequen “arrayán” frente a cepas de referencia y patógenos bacterianos y levaduras aislados de hemocultivos de un centro hospitalario. Hojas de Luma chequen “arrayán”, fueron recolectadas, maceradas y obtenido extractos etanólico y acuoso para ser evaluados por su actividad antimicrobiana frente a cepas de referencia de laboratorio y patógenos bacterianos y levaduras aisladas de hemocultivos de un centro hospitalario. La actividad de los extractos se valoró mediante el método modificado de difusión en pocillos y la determinación de la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) por microdilución. Se determinó que el extracto etanólico de la planta presentó mayor actividad inhibitoria frente a los patógenos, siendo los más sensibles Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis y Klebsiella pneumoniae a una CMI de 3,125 mg/mL y Candida tropicalis y C. parapsilosis a una CMI de 1,56 mg/mL. Se concluyó que Luma chequen, una planta etnomedicinal nativa del sur del Perú, posee componentes bioactivos que inhiben a patógenos humanos causantes de bacteremias y fungemias.

          Translated abstract

          In the present work we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Luma chequen “myrtle” against reference strains, bacterial pathogens and yeasts isolated from blood cultures of a hospital facility. Luma leaves were harvested, macerated and obtained ethanol and aqueous extracts to be evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against laboratory of reference strains, bacterial pathogens and yeasts isolated from blood cultures of a hospital laboratory. The activity of the extracts was assessed by the modified method of diffusion in wells and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by microdilution. It was determined that the ethanol extract of the plant presented greater inhibitory activity against the pathogens, being the most sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae at the MIC of 3.125 mg / mL and for Candida tropicalis and C. parapsilosis with a MIC of 1.56 mg / mL. It was concluded that Luma chequen, an ethnomedicinal plant native from Southern Peru, has bioactive components that inhibit human pathogens causing bacteremias and fungemias.

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          Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem.

          Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of mycosis-associated mortality in the United States. We examined data from the National Center for Health Statistics and reviewed recent literature in order to update the epidemiology of IC. IC-associated mortality has remained stable, at approximately 0.4 deaths per 100,000 population, since 1997, while mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis has continued to decline. Candida albicans remains the predominant cause of IC, accounting for over half of all cases, but Candida glabrata has emerged as the second most common cause of IC in the United States, and several less common Candida species may be emerging, some of which can exhibit resistance to triazoles and/or amphotericin B. Crude and attributable rates of mortality due to IC remain unacceptably high and unchanged for the past 2 decades. Nonpharmacologic preventive strategies should be emphasized, including hand hygiene; appropriate use, placement, and care of central venous catheters; and prudent use of antimicrobial therapy. Given that delays in appropriate antifungal therapy are associated with increased mortality, improved use of early empirical, preemptive, and prophylactic therapies should also help reduce IC-associated mortality. Several studies have now identified important variables that can be used to predict risk of IC and to help guide preventive strategies such as antifungal prophylaxis and early empirical therapy. However, improved non-culture-based diagnostics are needed to expand the potential for preemptive (or early directed) therapy. Further research to improve diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic strategies is necessary to reduce the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with IC.
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            Fluconazole MIC and the fluconazole dose/MIC ratio correlate with therapeutic response among patients with candidemia.

            We tested 32 Candida isolates recovered in the early 1990s from the bloodstreams of patients with candidemia for in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole and determined if MIC and/or the daily dose of fluconazole/MIC ratio correlated with the response to therapy. This is a unique data set since 87.5% (28/32) of patients were treated with fluconazole doses now considered to be inadequate ( /= 64 mug/ml) isolates were 67% (14/21), 20% (1/5), and 0% (0/6), respectively. A dose/MIC ratio >50 was associated with a success rate of 74% (14/19), compared to 8% (1/13) for a dose/MIC ratio
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              Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream fungal isolates in pediatric patients: a Spanish multicenter prospective survey.

              Data on fungemia epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of isolates from children are scarce, leading frequently to pediatric empirical treatment based on available adult data. The present study was designed to update the epidemiological, mycological, and in vitro susceptibility data on fungal isolates from children with fungemia in Spain. All fungemia episodes were identified prospectively by blood culture over 13 months at 30 hospitals. Tests of susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin were performed at participant institutions by a microdilution colorimetric method. New species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole, voriconazole, and echinocandins were also applied. A total of 203 episodes of fungemia in 200 children were identified. A higher proportion of fungal isolates was from general wards than intensive care units (ICU). Candida parapsilosis (46.8%), Candida albicans (36.5%), Candida tropicalis (5.9%), Candida glabrata (3.9%), and Candida guilliermondii (2.5%) were the leading species. C. parapsilosis was the predominant species except in neonates. C. albicans was the most frequent in neonatal ICU settings (51.9%). Intravascular catheter (79.3%), surgery (35%), prematurity (30%), and neutropenia (11%) were the most frequent predisposing factors. Most Candida isolates (95.1%) were susceptible to all antifungals. When the new species-specific clinical breakpoints were applied, all C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to echinocandins except one, which was micafungin resistant. This is the largest published series of fungemia episodes in the pediatric setting. C. parapsilosis is the most prevalent species in Spain, followed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Resistance to azole and echinocandin agents is extremely rare among Candida species. The fluconazole resistance rate in Spain has decreased in the last 10 years.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rsvm
                Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología
                Rev. Soc. Ven. Microbiol.
                Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología. (Caracas, DF, Venezuela )
                1315-2556
                June 2017
                : 37
                : 1
                : 10-16
                Affiliations
                [01] orgnameUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas orgdiv2Laboratorio de Ecología Microbiana
                [02] Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos orgdiv1Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química orgdiv2Laboratorio de Productos Naturales Perú
                Article
                S1315-25562017000100004 S1315-2556(17)03700100004
                d1364c9c-792b-4eba-9d81-09d2d80f200f

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 01 November 2016
                : 23 March 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículos Originales

                extractos vegetales,traditional medicine,phytotherapy,plant extracts,Luma chequen,antimicrobial activity,myrtle,medicina tradicional,fitoterapia,actividad antimicrobiana,arrayán

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