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      Connecting the Sequence-Space of Bacterial Signaling Proteins to Phenotypes Using Coevolutionary Landscapes

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          Abstract

          Two-component signaling (TCS) is the primary means by which bacteria sense and respond to the environment. TCS involves two partner proteins working in tandem, which interact to perform cellular functions whereas limiting interactions with non-partners (i.e., cross-talk). We construct a Potts model for TCS that can quantitatively predict how mutating amino acid identities affect the interaction between TCS partners and non-partners. The parameters of this model are inferred directly from protein sequence data. This approach drastically reduces the computational complexity of exploring the sequence-space of TCS proteins. As a stringent test, we compare its predictions to a recent comprehensive mutational study, which characterized the functionality of 20 4 mutational variants of the PhoQ kinase in Escherichia coli. We find that our best predictions accurately reproduce the amino acid combinations found in experiment, which enable functional signaling with its partner PhoP. These predictions demonstrate the evolutionary pressure to preserve the interaction between TCS partners as well as prevent unwanted cross-talk. Further, we calculate the mutational change in the binding affinity between PhoQ and PhoP, providing an estimate to the amount of destabilization needed to disrupt TCS.

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          Two-component signal transduction.

          Most prokaryotic signal-transduction systems and a few eukaryotic pathways use phosphotransfer schemes involving two conserved components, a histidine protein kinase and a response regulator protein. The histidine protein kinase, which is regulated by environmental stimuli, autophosphorylates at a histidine residue, creating a high-energy phosphoryl group that is subsequently transferred to an aspartate residue in the response regulator protein. Phosphorylation induces a conformational change in the regulatory domain that results in activation of an associated domain that effects the response. The basic scheme is highly adaptable, and numerous variations have provided optimization within specific signaling systems. The domains of two-component proteins are modular and can be integrated into proteins and pathways in a variety of ways, but the core structures and activities are maintained. Thus detailed analyses of a relatively small number of representative proteins provide a foundation for understanding this large family of signaling proteins.
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            Funnels, pathways, and the energy landscape of protein folding: a synthesis.

            The understanding, and even the description of protein folding is impeded by the complexity of the process. Much of this complexity can be described and understood by taking a statistical approach to the energetics of protein conformation, that is, to the energy landscape. The statistical energy landscape approach explains when and why unique behaviors, such as specific folding pathways, occur in some proteins and more generally explains the distinction between folding processes common to all sequences and those peculiar to individual sequences. This approach also gives new, quantitative insights into the interpretation of experiments and simulations of protein folding thermodynamics and kinetics. Specifically, the picture provides simple explanations for folding as a two-state first-order phase transition, for the origin of metastable collapsed unfolded states and for the curved Arrhenius plots observed in both laboratory experiments and discrete lattice simulations. The relation of these quantitative ideas to folding pathways, to uniexponential vs. multiexponential behavior in protein folding experiments and to the effect of mutations on folding is also discussed. The success of energy landscape ideas in protein structure prediction is also described. The use of the energy landscape approach for analyzing data is illustrated with a quantitative analysis of some recent simulations, and a qualitative analysis of experiments on the folding of three proteins. The work unifies several previously proposed ideas concerning the mechanism protein folding and delimits the regions of validity of these ideas under different thermodynamic conditions.
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              Direct-coupling analysis of residue coevolution captures native contacts across many protein families.

              The similarity in the three-dimensional structures of homologous proteins imposes strong constraints on their sequence variability. It has long been suggested that the resulting correlations among amino acid compositions at different sequence positions can be exploited to infer spatial contacts within the tertiary protein structure. Crucial to this inference is the ability to disentangle direct and indirect correlations, as accomplished by the recently introduced direct-coupling analysis (DCA). Here we develop a computationally efficient implementation of DCA, which allows us to evaluate the accuracy of contact prediction by DCA for a large number of protein domains, based purely on sequence information. DCA is shown to yield a large number of correctly predicted contacts, recapitulating the global structure of the contact map for the majority of the protein domains examined. Furthermore, our analysis captures clear signals beyond intradomain residue contacts, arising, e.g., from alternative protein conformations, ligand-mediated residue couplings, and interdomain interactions in protein oligomers. Our findings suggest that contacts predicted by DCA can be used as a reliable guide to facilitate computational predictions of alternative protein conformations, protein complex formation, and even the de novo prediction of protein domain structures, contingent on the existence of a large number of homologous sequences which are being rapidly made available due to advances in genome sequencing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mol Biol Evol
                Mol. Biol. Evol
                molbev
                molbiolevol
                Molecular Biology and Evolution
                Oxford University Press
                0737-4038
                1537-1719
                December 2016
                07 September 2016
                07 September 2016
                : 33
                : 12
                : 3054-3064
                Affiliations
                1Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX
                2Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                3Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
                4Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX
                5Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX
                6Department of Chemistry, and Biosciences, Rice University, Houston, TX
                7Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Systems Biology, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX
                Author notes

                Associate editor: Claus Wilke

                Article
                msw188
                10.1093/molbev/msw188
                5100047
                27604223
                d1408c76-407a-438d-8bfd-21239f4755df
                © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                History
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                Fast Track

                Molecular biology
                statistical inference,mutational phenotypes,interaction specificity,epistasis,fitness landscape,bacterial signaling.

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