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      Engineered human platelet-derived microparticles as natural vectors for targeted drug delivery

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          Abstract

          Drug targeting has opened a new paradigm in therapeutics with development of delivery vectors like liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Although their clinical application is crippled by limited biological adaptability. Off-target toxicity and biocompatibility still remains one of the critical problems in anticancer therapeutics that can be life-threatening. Here we report a quick, simple and facile method of engineering human platelets to generate drug loaded platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) by top-down approach, which are biocompatible and naturally target leukemia cells. Drug loaded PMPs and cancer cell uptake were characterized by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and fluorimetry. Effective drug delivery was tested in cancer cell lines as well as in clinical samples from leukemia patients. We explored that PMPs are capable of carrying multiple drug payloads, have long shelf life and can be harvested in large quantity in short period. Importantly, PMPs exhibited remarkably higher toxicity towards cancer cells than free drug and had lower escape into extravascular spaces. Transfer of drug to cancer cells of leukemia patients was significantly higher than free drug, when delivered through PMPs. Our experiments validated therapeutic application of PMPs as biocompatible drug delivery vector against cancer cells with minimal off-target delivery.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Membrane-derived microvesicles: important and underappreciated mediators of cell-to-cell communication.

          Normal and malignant cells shed from their surface membranes as well as secrete from the endosomal membrane compartment circular membrane fragments called microvesicles (MV). MV that are released from viable cells are usually smaller in size compared to the apoptotic bodies derived from damaged cells and unlike them do not contain fragmented DNA. Growing experimental evidence indicates that MV are an underappreciated component of the cell environment and play an important pleiotropic role in many biological processes. Generally, MV are enriched in various bioactive molecules and may (i) directly stimulate cells as a kind of 'signaling complex', (ii) transfer membrane receptors, proteins, mRNA and organelles (e.g., mitochondria) between cells and finally (iii) deliver infectious agents into cells (e.g., human immuno deficiency virus, prions). In this review, we discuss the pleiotropic effects of MV that are important for communication between cells, as well as the role of MV in carcinogenesis, coagulation, immune responses and modulation of susceptibility/infectability of cells to retroviruses or prions.
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            Liposomes and nanoparticles: nanosized vehicles for drug delivery in cancer.

            Nanoscale drug delivery systems using liposomes and nanoparticles are emerging technologies for the rational delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of cancer. Their use offers improved pharmacokinetic properties, controlled and sustained release of drugs and, more importantly, lower systemic toxicity. The commercial availability of liposomal Doxil and albumin-nanoparticle-based Abraxane has focused attention on this innovative and exciting field. Recent advances in liposome technology offer better treatment of multidrug-resistant cancers and lower cardiotoxicity. Nanoparticles offer increased precision in chemotherapeutic targeting of prostate cancer and new avenues for the treatment of breast cancer. Here we review current knowledge on the two technologies and their potential applications to cancer treatment.
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              Circulating microparticles: a potential prognostic marker for atherosclerotic vascular disease.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                Oncotarget
                ImpactJ
                Oncotarget
                Impact Journals LLC
                1949-2553
                08 October 2019
                08 October 2019
                : 10
                : 56
                : 5835-5846
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India
                2 Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Debabrata Dash, ddash.biochem@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                27223
                10.18632/oncotarget.27223
                6791386
                Copyright: © 2019 Kailashiya et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Research Paper

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