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      Determinación de la resistencia a insecticidas y sus mecanismos bioquímicos en 2 cepas de Culex quinquefasciatus procedentes de Santiago de Cuba

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Se analizó el comportamiento de la resistencia a 3 insecticidas organofosforados (malatión, clorpirifos y pirimifos metil), 3 piretroides (deltametrina, lambdacialotrina y cipermetrina) y 1 carbamato (propoxur) en poblaciones de Culex quinquefasciatus provenientes de 2 municipios de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba. Los valores del factor de resistencia determinaron que existe resistencia para malatión y clorpirifos. Sin embargo, a pesar de la existencia de una alta frecuencia en los mecanismos de esterasas elevadas y acetilcolinesterasa alterada, no se observó resistencia a pirimifos metil, lo cual corroboró la no afectación de este insecticida por estos mecanismos seleccionados en nuestras poblaciones de Culex quinquefasciatus. Se observó resistencia a los insecticidas piretroides deltametrina y lambdacialotrina en Santiago de Cuba, y moderada para cipermetrina en Santiago y San Luis; también se encontró en San Luis resistencia a deltametrina, pero moderada a lambdacialotrina. Los resultados obtenidos a partir del uso de los sinergistas S,S,S tributil fosfotritiado (DEF) y piperonil butóxido (PB) indicaron que los mecanismos de resistencia de esterasas inespecíficas y las oxidasas de función múltiple están involucradas en la resistencia a piretroides en ambas cepas provenientes de Santiago de Cuba y San Luis. Se determinó, mediante las pruebas bioquímicas, que existió una alta frecuencia de los mecanismos de esterasas y acetilcolinesterasa alterada. Los resultados de las electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida (PAGE), mostraron que la esterasa B1 aparece con mayor frecuencia asociada con las esterasas A6 y B6. Se infirió que esta asociacioón pudiera estar vinculada con la resistencia a piretroides.

          Translated abstract

          It was analyzed the behavior of the resistance of 3 organophosphated insecticides (malathion, clorpirifos and methyl-pyrimifos), 3 pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin), and 1 carbamate (propuxur) in populations of Culex quinquefasciatus from 2 municipalities of the province of Santiago de Cuba. The values of the resistance factor proved that there is resistance to malathion and clorpirifos. However, in spite of the existance of a high frequency of the mechanisms of elevated esterases and altered acetylcholinesterase no resistance to methyl-pymirifos, was observed which demostrated that this insecticide is not affected by these mechanisms selected in our populations of Culex quinquefasciatus. There was resistence to deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin in Santiago de Cuba, whereas it was moderate to cypermethrin in Santiago and San Luis. Resistance to delta-methrin was also found in San Luis, but it was mild to lambda-cyhalothrin. The results obtained from the use of the synergists S,S,S tributyl phosphotritiade (DBF) and piperonyl butoxide (PB) indicated that the mechanisms of resistance of unspecific esterases and oxidases of multiple function are involved in the resistance to pyrethroids in both strains from Santiago de Cuba and San Luis. It was determined by the biochemical tests that there existed a high frequency of the mechanisms of esterases and altered acetyl-cholinesterase. The results of the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) showed that esterase B1 appears more frequently associated with esterases A6 and B6. It was inferred that this association coul be connected with the resistance to pyrethroids.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Los ixodidos y culicidos de Cuba: Su historia natural y médica

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            Malathion and pyrethroid resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus from Cuba: efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl in the presence of at least three resistance mechanisms.

            Use of malathion for mosquito control in Cuba for 7 years up to 1986 has selected for elevated non-specific esterase and altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resistance mechanisms in populations of the pest mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. These mechanisms are still present in relatively high frequencies in the Havana area, despite the replacement of malathion by pyrethroid insecticides for the last 3 years in the mosquito control programme. Samples of Culex quinquefasciatus populations from within a 100 km radius of Havana had high levels of resistance to malathion and lower levels of resistance to propoxur, but there was little or no cross-resistance to the organophosphorus insecticide pirimiphos-methyl. Selection with malathion for twenty-two consecutive generations in the laboratory increased the level of malathion resistance to 1208-fold and propoxur level to 1002-fold, but the maximum level of pirimiphos-methyl resistance was only 11-fold. Pirimiphos-methyl is still operationally effective, despite the resistance mechanisms segregating, so this insecticide if used for control is unlikely to select either of the known resistance factors directly in the field population. Since 1986, pyrethroids have been used extensively, and low levels of pyrethroid resistance were detected in two of five field population samples tested. Malathion selection did not increase the level of pyrethroid resistance, which indicates that one or more distinct pyrethroid resistance factors are now being selected in the field populations of Culex quinquefasciatus.
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              • Record: found
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              Biology and control of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 (Diptera, Culicidae) with special reference to Africa

               R Subra (1981)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                mtr
                Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical
                Rev Cubana Med Trop
                Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas (Ciudad de la Habana )
                1561-3054
                December 1997
                : 49
                : 3
                : 209-214
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Estadual de Maringá Brazil
                [2 ] Centro de Higiene y Epidemiología de Santiago de Cuba. Cuba
                S0375-07601997000300009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Cuba
                Categories
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

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