Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 4

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Gender and blindness: a meta-analysis of population-based prevalence surveys.

      Many individual surveys of blindness have reported slightly higher rates of blindness for women. In order to gain a continent-by-continent and global sense of the burden of blindness by sex we conducted a meta-analysis of published, population-based surveys of blindness. Published reports were collected using a predetermined search protocol involving commercial electronic databases, hand-searching of references and direct contact with researchers. Studies were included that were population-based, included clinical examination and had a minimum sample size of 1000. The studies were critically appraised to determine methodological rigour. Data were analysed using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager. The overall odds ratio (age-adjusted) of blind women to men is 1.43 (95% CI 1.33-1.53), ranging from 1.39 (95% CI 1.20-1.61) in Africa, 1.41 (95% CI 1.29-1.54) in Asia, and 1.63 (95% CI 1.30-2.05) in industrialised countries. There was good homogeneity of findings from Africa, Asia, and the industrialised countries. Globally, women bear excess blindness compared to men. In these surveys, overall, women account for 64.5% of all blind people. The excess of blindness in women was marked among the elderly and not due only to differential life expectancy. The excess burden of blindness among women is likely due to a number of factors, which are different in industrialised countries compared to developing countries. Particular attention to gender differences in blindness is needed in the creation of targets for blindness reduction and in the development of interventions.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        The burden of trachoma in the rural Nile Delta of Egypt: a survey of Menofiya governorate.

        Evidence of widespread distribution of trachoma in Egypt had not been clarified as previous surveys were limited to individual communities which may not have been representative of the general population. The Nile Delta of Egypt presents a unique environment for trachoma to persist. Economic improvements in the past decade have affected even the poorest rural environments; availability of electricity is now found in many rural communities. Availability of water in Nile Delta has always been good but poor hygienic conditions have been the primary factor in trachoma transmission. A survey of trachoma was undertaken in Menofiya governorate to determine if Egypt should be identified as trachoma endemic and targeted for trachoma control efforts. A multistage random cluster study design was used with the target population defined as adults aged 50 and over and children aged 2-6 years from throughout the governorate. Among preschool children only trachoma was graded while among adults presenting visual acuity and cause of vision loss or blindness were also recorded. Adults were interviewed regarding past trichiasis surgery; those currently with trichiasis or a history of trichiasis surgery were also interviewed regarding outcome of surgery. A total of 3272 children aged 2-6 and 3322 adults age 50+ were enumerated. Among the children 81.3% were examined and among the adults 73.0% were examined. Active trachoma (follicles (TF) and/or intense inflammation (TI)) was found among 36.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 34.7-38.3%) of the children. TI was 1.89 (95% CI 1.22-2.94) times more common in rural children compared to urban children. The prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in adults was 6.5%; women had an age adjusted odds of trichiasis of 1.68 (95% CI 1.18-2.39) compared to men. Trichiasis was 2.11 times (95% CI 1.33-3.37) more common in rural Menofiya compared to urban Menofiya. TT accounts for blindness (presenting vision <3/60) in 8% of patients and accounts for 13.2% of visual impairment. Overall, trichiasis surgical coverage was 34.4%, slightly higher among men than women. The outcome of trichiasis surgery was poor in 44.4% of cases. Trachoma is a serious public health problem in Menofiya governorate and a significant contributor to vision loss. These findings would suggest that continued poor hygienic conditions in rural Egypt have limited the reduction of active trachoma even in the face of significant improvements in socioeconomic status. Furthermore, the high proportion of trichiasis surgery cases with a poor outcome would indicate a need to reassess current surgical practices in Egypt and improve training and monitoring.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Sociodemographic characteristics associated with blindness in a Nile Delta governorate of Egypt.

          Globally, blindness is associated with old age and being female. Other sociodemographic and socioeconomic status characteristics associated with blindness have included educational attainment, and occupation. These factors reflect exposure to specific risk factors for blinding eye diseases and utilisation of preventive and curative services by specific sectors of the population. A population based survey of blindness and trachoma was conducted in Menofiya governorate in Egypt. 3322 adults 50 years of age and over were sampled from throughout the governorate (population 2.7 million). Visual acuity and clinical conditions were recorded and interviews with respondents were conducted. Overall, blindness (<6/60 presenting vision in the better eye) was recorded in 13% of the study population. Besides age and sex, other factors associated with blindness (logistic regression) were marital status and poor sanitation in the household. Socioeconomic status does not appear to be a significant factor associated with blindness in adults in this setting. Instead, sociocultural factors, in particular, characteristics associated with gender sensitive decision making within households, are likely to be more important considerations in understanding blindness in these communities. Successfully combating blindness in the Nile Delta of Egypt will require gender sensitive efforts aimed at timely and effective utilisation of eye care services.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Lecturer, Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, PO Box 245, 11411, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Email: ahmousa7@ 123456gmail.com
            Medical Director, Al Noor Magrabi Foundation, Cairo, Egypt.
            Medical Anthropology Consultant, Al Noor Magrabi Foundation, Cairo, Egypt.
            Contributors
            Lecturer, Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, PO Box 245, 11411, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Email: ahmousa7@ 123456gmail.com
            Medical Director, Al Noor Magrabi Foundation, Cairo, Egypt.
            Medical Anthropology Consultant, Al Noor Magrabi Foundation, Cairo, Egypt.
            Journal
            Community Eye Health
            Community Eye Health
            Community Eye Health
            International Centre for Eye Health
            0953-6833
            1993-7288
            June 2009
            : 22
            : 70 , Gender and eye health
            : 22-23
            2760276
            19888364
            jceh_22_70_022
            © 2009 Ahmed Mousa, Gamal Ezz El Arab and Ebtehal Rashad

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Case Study Egypt

            Ophthalmology & Optometry

            Comments

            Comment on this article