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      Experimental and Computational Studies of Microwave-Assisted, Facile Ring Opening of Epoxide with Less Reactive Aromatic Amines in Nitromethane

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          Abstract

          Nucleophilic ring opening reactions of epoxides with aromatic amines are in the forefront of the synthetic organic chemistry research to build new bioactive scaffolds. Here, convenient, green, and highly efficient regioselective ring opening reactions of sterically hindered (2 R,3 S)-3-( N-Boc-amino)-1-oxirane-4-phenylbutane with various poorly reactive aromatic amines are accomplished under microwave irradiation in nitromethane. All the reactions effectively implemented for various aromatic amines involve the reuse of nitromethane that supports its dual role as a solvent and catalyst. The corresponding new β-alcohol analogs of hydroxyethylamine (HEA) are isolated in 41–98% yields. The reactions proceed under mild conditions for a broad range of less reactive and sterically hindered aromatic amines. Proton NMR experiments suggest that the nucleophilicity of amines is influenced by nitromethane, which is substantiated by the extensive computational studies. Overall, this methodology elucidates the first-time use of nitromethane as a solvent for the ring opening reactions under microwave conditions involving an equimolar ratio of epoxide and aromatic amine without any catalyst, facile ring opening of complex epoxide by less reactive aromatic amines, low reaction time, less energy consumption, recycling of the solvent, and simple workup procedures.

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          Reference scales for the characterization of cationic electrophiles and neutral nucleophiles.

          Twenty-three diarylcarbenium ions and 38 pi-systems (arenes, alkenes, allyl silanes and stannanes, silyl enol ethers, silyl ketene acetals, and enamines) have been defined as basis sets for establishing general reactivity scales for electrophiles and nucleophiles. The rate constants of 209 combinations of these benzhydrylium ions and pi-nucleophiles, 85 of which are first presented in this article, have been subjected to a correlation analysis to determine the electrophilicity parameters E and the nucleophilicity parameters N and s as defined by the equation log k(20 degrees C) = s(N + E) (Mayr, H.; Patz, M. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 1994, 33, 938-957). Though the reactivity scales thus obtained cover more than 16 orders of magnitude, the individual rate constants are reproduced with a standard deviation of a factor of 1.19 (Table 1). It is shown that the reactivity parameters thus derived from the reactions of diarylcarbenium ions with pi-nucleophiles (Figure 3) are also suitable for characterizing the nucleophilic reactivities of alkynes, metal-pi-complexes, and hydride donors (Table 2) and for characterizing the electrophilic reactivities of heterosubstituted and metal-coordinated carbenium ions (Table 3). The reactivity parameters in Figure 3 are, therefore, recommended for the characterization of any new electrophiles and nucleophiles in the reactivity range covered. The linear correlation between the electrophilicity parameters E of benzhydryl cations and the corresponding substituent constants sigma(+) provides Hammett sigma(+) constants for 10 substituents from -1.19 to -2.11, i.e., in a range with only very few previous entries.
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            Scales of Nucleophilicity and Electrophilicity: A System for Ordering Polar Organic and Organometallic Reactions

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              Zinc(II) perchlorate hexahydrate catalyzed opening of epoxide ring by amines: applications to synthesis of (RS)/(R)-propranolols and (RS)/(R)/(S)-naftopidils.

              Commercially available zinc(II) perchlorate hexahydrate [Zn(ClO4)2.6H2O] was found to be a new and highly efficient catalyst for opening of epoxide rings by amines affording 2-amino alcohols in high yields under solvent-free conditions and with excellent chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities. For unsymmetrical epoxides, the regioselectivity was influenced by the electronic and steric factors associated with the epoxides and the amines. A complementarity in the regioselectivity was observed during the reaction of styrene oxide with aromatic and aliphatic amines: aromatic amines provided amino alcohols from nucleophilic attack at the benzylic carbon as major products whereas aliphatic amines resulted in formation of the amino alcohols through reaction at the terminal carbon atom of the epoxide ring as the major/sole products. Reaction of aniline with various glycidic ethers gave the amino alcohols by regioselective nucleophilic attack at the terminal carbon atom of the epoxide ring as the only/major product. Zinc(II) perchlorate hexahydrate was found to be the best catalyst compared to other metal perchlorates. The counteranion modulated the catalytic property of the various Zn(II) compounds that followed the order Zn(ClO4)2.(6)H2O>Zn(BF4)2 approximately Zn(OTf)2>ZnI2>ZnBr2>ZnCl2>Zn(OAc)2>Zn(CO3)2 in parallelism with the acidic strength of the corresponding protic acids (except for TfOH). The applicability of the methodology was demonstrated by the synthesis of cardiovascular drugs propranolol and naftopidil as racemates and optically active enantiomers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ACS Omega
                ACS Omega
                ao
                acsodf
                ACS Omega
                American Chemical Society
                2470-1343
                21 July 2020
                04 August 2020
                : 5
                : 30
                : 18746-18757
                Affiliations
                []Department of Chemistry, Miranda House, University of Delhi , Delhi 110007, India
                []Laboratory for Translational Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Department of Chemistry, Hansraj College University Enclave , University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
                [§ ]Laboratory of Computational Modelling of Drugs, South Ural State University , Chelyabinsk 454080, Russia
                []Department of Chemistry, Aditi Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi , Bawana, Delhi 110039, India
                Author notes
                Article
                10.1021/acsomega.0c01760
                7408245
                32775876
                d14a8189-37b0-475a-914d-1d27a3e0a42c
                Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

                History
                : 16 April 2020
                : 09 July 2020
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