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      The Diacylglycerol Analogs OAG and DOG Differentially Affect Primary Events of Pheromone Transduction in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta in a Zeitgebertime-Dependent Manner Apparently Targeting TRP Channels

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          For the hawkmoth Manduca sexta accumulating evidence suggests that pheromone transduction acts via a metabotropic signal transduction cascade, with G-protein-dependent phospholipase C (PLC) activations generating diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate as the primary events in hawkmoth pheromone transduction. In contrast, ionotropic olfactory receptor (OR) coreceptor (Orco)-dependent mechanisms do not appear to be involved. In hawkmoths pheromones activated a specific sequence of PLC-dependent ion channels of unknown identity. In several sensory systems transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels were found downstream of PLC as primary transduction channels. Also in the mammalian vomeronasal organ, DAG-dependent TRP channels are employed. Therefore, we hypothesized that TRPs may be downstream targets for DAG also in the hawkmoth pheromone signal transduction pathway. To test this, we employed two DAG analogs, OAG and DOG for in vivo single-sensillum tip-recordings of pheromone-sensitive sensilla. Since olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressed circadian changes in sensitivity throughout the day, we recorded at two different Zeitgebertimes (ZTs), the hawkmoths activity phase at ZT 1 and its resting phase at ZT 9. We found that the DAG analogs targeted at least two different TRP-like channels that underlie the primary events of hawkmoth pheromone transduction daytime-dependently. At both ZTs OAG sped up and increased the Orco-independent phasic action potential response without affecting the Orco-dependent late, long-lasting pheromone response. Thus, OAG most likely opened a transient Ca 2+ permeable TRP channel that was available at both ZTs and that opened pheromone-dependently before Orco. In contrast, DOG slowed down and decreased the sensillum potential, the phasic-, and the late, long-lasting pheromone response. Therefore, DOG appeared to activate a protein kinase C (PKC) that closed TRP-like Ca 2+ permeable channels and opened Ca 2+ impermeable cation channels, which have been previously described and are most abundant at ZT 9. These data support our hypothesis that hawkmoth pheromone transduction is mediated by metabotropic PLC-dependent mechanisms that activate TRP-like channels as the primary event of pheromone transduction. In addition, our data indicate that at different times of the day different second messenger-dependent ion channels are available for pheromone transduction cascades.

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          Most cited references 63

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          An introduction to TRP channels.

          The aim of this review is to provide a basic framework for understanding the function of mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, particularly as they have been elucidated in heterologous expression systems. Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane (6-TM) cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Selected functional properties of TRP channels from each subfamily are summarized in this review. Although a single defining characteristic of TRP channel function has not yet emerged, TRP channels may be generally described as calcium-permeable cation channels with polymodal activation properties. By integrating multiple concomitant stimuli and coupling their activity to downstream cellular signal amplification via calcium permeation and membrane depolarization, TRP channels appear well adapted to function in cellular sensation. Our review of recent literature implicating TRP channels in neuronal growth cone steering suggests that TRPs may function more widely in cellular guidance and chemotaxis. The TRP channel gene family and its nomenclature, the encoded proteins and alternatively spliced variants, and the rapidly expanding pharmacology of TRP channels are summarized in online supplemental material.
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            Insect olfactory receptors are heteromeric ligand-gated ion channels.

            In insects, each olfactory sensory neuron expresses between one and three ligand-binding members of the olfactory receptor (OR) gene family, along with the highly conserved and broadly expressed Or83b co-receptor. The functional insect OR consists of a heteromeric complex of unknown stoichiometry but comprising at least one variable odorant-binding subunit and one constant Or83b family subunit. Insect ORs lack homology to G-protein-coupled chemosensory receptors in vertebrates and possess a distinct seven-transmembrane topology with the amino terminus located intracellularly. Here we provide evidence that heteromeric insect ORs comprise a new class of ligand-activated non-selective cation channels. Heterologous cells expressing silkmoth, fruitfly or mosquito heteromeric OR complexes showed extracellular Ca2+ influx and cation-non-selective ion conductance on stimulation with odorant. Odour-evoked OR currents are independent of known G-protein-coupled second messenger pathways. The fast response kinetics and OR-subunit-dependent K+ ion selectivity of the insect OR complex support the hypothesis that the complex between OR and Or83b itself confers channel activity. Direct evidence for odorant-gated channels was obtained by outside-out patch-clamp recording of Xenopus oocyte and HEK293T cell membranes expressing insect OR complexes. The ligand-gated ion channel formed by an insect OR complex seems to be the basis for a unique strategy that insects have acquired to respond to the olfactory environment.
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              Drosophila odorant receptors are both ligand-gated and cyclic-nucleotide-activated cation channels.

              From worm to man, many odorant signals are perceived by the binding of volatile ligands to odorant receptors that belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. They couple to heterotrimeric G-proteins, most of which induce cAMP production. This second messenger then activates cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channels to depolarize the olfactory receptor neuron, thus providing a signal for further neuronal processing. Recent findings, however, have challenged this concept of odorant signal transduction in insects, because their odorant receptors, which lack any sequence similarity to other GPCRs, are composed of conventional odorant receptors (for example, Or22a), dimerized with a ubiquitously expressed chaperone protein, such as Or83b in Drosophila. Or83b has a structure akin to GPCRs, but has an inverted orientation in the plasma membrane. However, G proteins are expressed in insect olfactory receptor neurons, and olfactory perception is modified by mutations affecting the cAMP transduction pathway. Here we show that application of odorants to mammalian cells co-expressing Or22a and Or83b results in non-selective cation currents activated by means of an ionotropic and a metabotropic pathway, and a subsequent increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Expression of Or83b alone leads to functional ion channels not directly responding to odorants, but being directly activated by intracellular cAMP or cGMP. Insect odorant receptors thus form ligand-gated channels as well as complexes of odorant-sensing units and cyclic-nucleotide-activated non-selective cation channels. Thereby, they provide rapid and transient as well as sensitive and prolonged odorant signalling.

                Author and article information

                Front Cell Neurosci
                Front Cell Neurosci
                Front. Cell. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                24 July 2018
                : 12
                Animal Physiology, FB 10, Biology, University of Kassel , Kassel, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Frédéric Marion-Poll, AgroParisTech Institut des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de L'environnement, France

                Reviewed by: Shannon Bryn Olsson, National Centre for Biological Sciences, India; Thomas Heinbockel, Howard University, United States

                *Correspondence: Monika Stengl stengl@ 123456uni-kassel.de
                Copyright © 2018 Gawalek and Stengl.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 69, Pages: 20, Words: 12992
                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 10.13039/501100001659
                Award ID: STE531/19_1
                Award ID: STE531/20_1,2
                Original Research


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