0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Serum Creatine Kinase Activity Varies with Ovulatory Status in Regularly Exercising, Premenopausal Women

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The clinical complications associated with an unopposed estrogen environment and luteal phase defects observed in exercising women prompted the examination of the relationship of exercise and endogenous ovarian steroids with serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. Methods: Subjects (n = 34) were classified into three groups according to their exercise and menstrual status, sedentary and exercising ovulatory groups (SedOvul, ExOvul), and an exercising amenorrheic group (ExAmen). Daily urine samples were collected to assess urinary ovarian steroid exposure and menstrual status. Serum CK activity was assayed in each menstrual cycle of all subjects. Results: Exercise increased serum CK activity in all exercising subjects (p < 0.01), but the increase was greater in amenorrheic women compared to ovulatory women (SedOvul: 33.0 ± 3.4; ExOvul: 43.7 ± 4.1; ExAmen: 54.4 ± 3.6, p < 0.05). When the ovulatory women were further divided into those with normal steroid production (ExOvul subgroup) and those with a suppressed progesterone luteal phase environment (ExLPD), both the ExOvul (51.9 ± 5.4 IU/l) subgroup and ExAmen group had higher serum CK activity (p < 0.05) than the ExLPD (36.6 ± 5.2 IU/l) subjects or the sedentary controls. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the complex association between ovarian hormone status and the normal serum CK response to regular mechanical stress imposed by chronic exercise training.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 20

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation.

          Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and the Potential Protective Role of Estrogen

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Physiological aspects and clinical sequelae of energy deficiency and hypoestrogenism in exercising women.

              Amenorrhoea associated with reduced caloric intake and strenuous exercise leads to hypoestrogenism and is associated with clinical manifestations that include disordered eating, stress fractures, osteoporosis, and, as recently reported, a potential increase in the risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Disordered eating, menstrual irregularities and bone loss comprise the clinical condition known as the 'female athlete triad'. The aetiology of the triad is linked to a high prevalence of disordered eating and cognitive restraint. This results in inadequate caloric intake for high exercise energy expenditures that leads to energy deficiency. This in turn stimulates compensatory mechanisms, such as weight loss or energy conservation, subsequently causing a central suppression of reproductive function and concomitant hypoestrogenism. Because the aetiology of menstrual disturbances and the female athlete triad is causally linked to energy deficiency, there is no justification for fears that exercise itself is unhealthy for women. However, improved detection, monitoring, and treatment of all components of the triad in exercising women should be emphasized. This paper critically reviews the physiological aspects and clinical sequelae of energy deficiency and hypoestrogenism associated with the female athlete triad in exercising women.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2006
                March 2006
                29 March 2006
                : 65
                : 3
                : 151-158
                Affiliations
                aMolecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., bDepartment of Biological Sciences and Program in Biochemistry, Smith College, Northampton, Mass., USA and cWomen’s Exercise and Bone Health Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
                Article
                91805 Horm Res 2006;65:151–158
                10.1159/000091805
                16514242
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 43, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Comments

                Comment on this article

                Similar content 186

                Cited by 4

                Most referenced authors 179