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      Inhibitory effect of Citrus flavonoids on the in vitro transport activity of human urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12), a renal re-absorber of urate

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          Abstract

          As hyperuricemia is a cause of urate-related diseases such as gout, the anti-hyperuricemic and/or uricosuric activity of food ingredients is receiving increased attention. Here, we examined the inhibitory activities of seven Citrus flavonoids against URAT1, a renal transporter involved in urate re-uptake from urine. We found that naringenin and nobiletin strongly inhibited URAT1, and may therefore serve as an anti-hyperuricemic food ingredient that can reduce the risk of urate-related diseases.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Molecular identification of a renal urate anion exchanger that regulates blood urate levels.

          Urate, a naturally occurring product of purine metabolism, is a scavenger of biological oxidants implicated in numerous disease processes, as demonstrated by its capacity of neuroprotection. It is present at higher levels in human blood (200 500 microM) than in other mammals, because humans have an effective renal urate reabsorption system, despite their evolutionary loss of hepatic uricase by mutational silencing. The molecular basis for urate handling in the human kidney remains unclear because of difficulties in understanding diverse urate transport systems and species differences. Here we identify the long-hypothesized urate transporter in the human kidney (URAT1, encoded by SLC22A12), a urate anion exchanger regulating blood urate levels and targeted by uricosuric and antiuricosuric agents (which affect excretion of uric acid). Moreover, we provide evidence that patients with idiopathic renal hypouricaemia (lack of blood uric acid) have defects in SLC22A12. Identification of URAT1 should provide insights into the nature of urate homeostasis, as well as lead to the development of better agents against hyperuricaemia, a disadvantage concomitant with human evolution.
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            Hypouricemic action of selected flavonoids in mice: structure-activity relationships.

            Hyperuricemia and gout appear to be rapidly increasing worldwide and frequently cause symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Dietary flavonoids have their potential beneficial effects on human health. In the present study, 15 flavonoids (quercetin, morin, myricetin, kaempferol, icariin, apigenin, luteolin, baicalin, silibinin, naringenin, formonoetin, genistein, puerarin, daidzin and naringin dihydrochalcone) were selected to investigate for their hypouricemic action in mice. Oral administration of quercetin, morin, myricetin, kaempferol, apigenin and puerarin at 50 and 100 mg/kg for 3 d was able to elicit hypouricemic actions in hyperuricemic mice induced by potassium oxonate. Luteolin, formonoetin and naringenin showed the significant effects only at 100 mg/kg. Quercetin, puerarin, myricetin, morin and kaempferol significantly reduced liver uric acid level in hyperuricemic animals. In addition, quercetin, morin, myricetin, kaempferol and puerarin exhibited significant inhibition on the liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities. It seems to be likely that these flavonoids reduce serum urate levels by mainly inhibiting XOD activity. However, the hypouricemic effect of apigenin observed seemed not to parallel with the changes in liver uric acid level and liver XOD activity, implying that apigenin might act via other mechanisms apart from inhibiting enzyme activity simply. Analysis of the chemical structure showed that a planar structure with the hydroxyl groups played a crucial role in hypouricemic activity of flavonoids. The exact mechanism of the hypouricemic action of flavonoids in vivo should be investigated in the future.
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              Flavanones: Citrus phytochemical with health-promoting properties.

              Citrus fruit and juices represent one of the main sources of compounds with a high potential for health promoting properties. Among these compounds, flavanones (such as hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, isosakuranetin, and their respective glycosides), which occur in quantities ranging from ∼180 to 740 mg/L (depending on the Citrus species and cultivar) are responsible for many biological activities. These compounds support and enhance the body's defenses against oxidative stress and help the organism in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Moreover, among other properties, they also show anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antimicrobial activities. This review analyzes the biochemistry, pharmacology, and biology of Citrus flavanones, emphasizing the occurrence in Citrus fruits and juices and their bioavailability, structure-function correlations and ability to modulate signal cascades both in vitro and in vivo. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                tappei-tky@umin.ac.jp
                Journal
                NPJ Sci Food
                NPJ Sci Food
                NPJ Science of Food
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2396-8370
                5 February 2020
                5 February 2020
                2020
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1764 7572, GRID grid.412708.8, Department of Pharmacy, , The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, ; Tokyo, 113-8655 Japan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1788 9678, GRID grid.419510.8, Frontier Laboratories for Value Creation, SAPPORO HOLDINGS LTD., 10 Okatome, Yaizu, ; Shizuoka, 425-0013 Japan
                Article
                63
                10.1038/s41538-020-0063-7
                7002704
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001691, MEXT | Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS);
                Award ID: 16H01808
                Award ID: 18KK0247
                Award ID: 15H05610
                Award ID: 19K16441
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Tappei Takada has received research grants from Gout Research Foundation, The Takeda Medical Foundation, and MSD Life Science Foundation, Public Interest Incorporated Foundation
                Categories
                Brief Communication
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                biochemistry, nutrition

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