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      Changing Times for CLN2 Disease: The Era of Enzyme Replacement Therapy

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          Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2 disease) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that results in early-onset, severe, progressive, neurological disabilities, leading to death in late childhood or early adolescence. Management has relied on symptomatic care, and supportive and palliative strategies, but the approval of the enzyme replacement therapy cerliponase alfa in the USA and Europe in 2017 brought different treatment opportunities. We describe the natural history of CLN2 disease, its diagnosis and management, and the preclinical and clinical development of cerliponase alfa. A PubMed search was undertaken for cerliponase alfa and rhTPP1 to identify preclinical and clinical studies. The hallmark-presenting symptoms of CLN2 disease are unprovoked seizures and a history of language delay, and progression involves motor dysfunction, and cognitive and visual decline. Cerliponase alfa has shown efficacy and tolerability in mouse and canine models of CLN2 disease when delivered intracerebroventricularly. Administration of cerliponase alfa in patients with CLN2 disease has led to significant reductions in the rate of decline of motor and language functions in comparison with a natural history population. The approval of cerliponase alfa has brought a new era for CLN2 disease, highlighting the need to understand different patterns of disease progression and clinical needs in treated patients.

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          Study of Intraventricular Cerliponase Alfa for CLN2 Disease

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            New nomenclature and classification scheme for the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.

            We provide a new classification for the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) that takes into account recent genetic and biochemical advances. This was originally developed by an international group with clinical, molecular genetic, biological, and morphologic interests, further revised by a panel of world experts in the NCLs, and is now updated in light of recent research findings. The aim is to provide young people, carers, and professionals with a diagnostic label that is informative, leads to effective clinical management of symptoms and in the future perhaps a cure, as well as aiding basic scientific and clinical research. We suggest that clinicians should aim to provide every child and family with detailed diagnostic information at clinical, biochemical, and genetic levels where possible, which the new classification allows in a gene-led hierarchical manner. The robustness and applicability of this updated new classification have been independently audited in the clinical setting using a series of patients previously diagnosed with NCL according to standard ultrastructural, biochemical, or genetic criteria.
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              Human iPSC models of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis capture distinct effects of TPP1 and CLN3 mutations on the endocytic pathway.

              Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) comprises ∼13 genetically distinct lysosomal disorders primarily affecting the central nervous system. Here we report successful reprograming of patient fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for the two most common NCL subtypes: classic late-infantile NCL, caused by TPP1(CLN2) mutation, and juvenile NCL, caused by CLN3 mutation. CLN2/TPP1- and CLN3-iPSCs displayed overlapping but distinct biochemical and morphological abnormalities within the endosomal-lysosomal system. In neuronal derivatives, further abnormalities were observed in mitochondria, Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. While lysosomal storage was undetectable in iPSCs, progressive disease subtype-specific storage material was evident upon neural differentiation and was rescued by reintroducing the non-mutated NCL proteins. In proof-of-concept studies, we further documented differential effects of potential small molecule TPP1 activity inducers. Fenofibrate and gemfibrozil, previously reported to induce TPP1 activity in control cells, failed to increase TPP1 activity in patient iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells. Conversely, nonsense suppression by PTC124 resulted in both an increase of TPP1 activity and attenuation of neuropathology in patient iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells. This study therefore documents the high value of this powerful new set of tools for improved drug screening and for investigating early mechanisms driving NCL pathogenesis.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                30 March 2020
                : 16
                : 213-222
                [1 ]Rare and Complex Epilepsy Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS , Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nicola Specchio Department of Neuroscience, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS , Rome, ItalyTel +39 0669592645Fax +39 0668592463 Email nicola.specchio@opbg.net
                © 2020 Specchio et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 54, Pages: 10


                seizures, late infantile, cerliponase alfa, tpp1, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2


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