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      Biodiversity of the oleaginous microorganisms in Tibetan Plateau


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          Microbial lipids, which are also known as single cell oils (SCO), are produced by oleaginous microorganisms including oleaginous bacteria, yeast, fungus and algae through converting carbohydrates into lipids under certain conditions. Due to its unique environment having extremely low temperature and anoxia, the Tibetan Plateau is amongst the regions with numerous rare ecotypes such as arid desert, salt marsh, alpine permafrost, hot spring, and lawn. By using a rapid, convenient screening method, we identified 31 strains of oleaginous microorganisms from different habitats in the Tibetan Plateau, which include wetlands, lawn, hot spring, alpine permafrost, and saline-alkali soil. Molecular identity analysis showed that they belong to 15 different species, 7 of which are reported for the first time as lipid-producing microorganisms, that is, Cladosporium sp., Gibberella fujikuro, Ochrobactrum sp., Plectosphaerella sp., Tilletiopsis albescens, Backusella ctenidia, and Davidiella tassiana. The distribution of the oleaginous microorganisms varies with habitats. 11 strains were found in hot spring (35.5%), 10 in farmland (32.3%), 6 in lawn (19.4%), 2 in sand (6.4%), 1 in wetland (3.2%), and 1 in permafrost (3.2%). Carbon utilization analysis indicated that most of these filamentous fungi can use xylose and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as carbon source, where Backusella ctenidia, Fusarium sp. and Gibberella fujikuroi have the strongest capability.

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          Molecular Cloning : A Laboratory Manual

          <p>The first two editions of this manual have been mainstays of molecular biology for nearly twenty years, with an unrivalled reputation for reliability, accuracy, and clarity.<br>In this new edition, authors Joseph Sambrook and David Russell have completely updated the book, revising every protocol and adding a mass of new material, to broaden its scope and maintain its unbeatable value for studies in genetics, molecular cell biology, developmental biology, microbiology, neuroscience, and immunology.<br>Handsomely redesigned and presented in new bindings of proven durability, this three–volume work is essential for everyone using today’s biomolecular techniques.<br>The opening chapters describe essential techniques, some well–established, some new, that are used every day in the best laboratories for isolating, analyzing and cloning DNA molecules, both large and small.<br>These are followed by chapters on cDNA cloning and exon trapping, amplification of DNA, generation and use of nucleic acid probes, mutagenesis, and DNA sequencing.<br>The concluding chapters deal with methods to screen expression libraries, express cloned genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells, analyze transcripts and proteins, and detect protein–protein interactions.<br>The Appendix is a compendium of reagents, vectors, media, technical suppliers, kits, electronic resources and other essential information.<br>As in earlier editions, this is the only manual that explains how to achieve success in cloning and provides a wealth of information about why techniques work, how they were first developed, and how they have evolved. </p>
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            Effects of biomass hydrolysis by-products on oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

            Lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis inevitably coproduces byproducts that may have various affects on downstream biotransformation. It is imperative to document the inhibitor tolerance ability of microbial strain in order to utilize biomass hydrolysate more effectively. To achieve better lipid production by Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4, we performed fermentation experiments in the presence of some representative inhibitors. We found that acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and syringaldehyde had slightly inhibitory effects; p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin were toxic at a concentration over 10 mM; and furfural and its derivatives furfuryl alcohol and furoic acid inhibited cell growth by 45% at around 1 mM. We further demonstrated that inhibition is generally additive, although strong synergistic inhibitions were also observed. Finally, lipid production afforded good results in the presence of six inhibitors at their respective concentrations usually found in biomass hydrolysates. Fatty acid compositional profile of lipid samples indicated that those inhibitors had little effects on lipid biosynthesis. Our work will be useful for optimization of biomass hydrolysis processes and lipid production using lignocellulosic materials.
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              Screening of oleaginous yeast strains tolerant to lignocellulose degradation compounds.

              High cost of triacylglycerol lipid feedstock is the major barrier for commercial production of biodiesel. The fermentation of oleaginous yeasts for lipid production using lignocellulose biomass provides a practical option with high economic competitiveness. In this paper, the typical oleaginous yeast strains were screened under the pressure of lignocellulose degradation compounds for selection of the optimal strains tolerant to lignocellulose. The inhibitory effect of lignocellulose degradation products on the oleaginous yeast fermentation was carefully investigated. Preliminary screening was carried out in the minimum nutritious medium without adding any expensive complex ingredients then was carried out in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate pretreated by dilute sulfuric acid. Seven typical lignocellulose degradation products formed in various pretreatment and hydrolysis processing were selected as the model inhibitors, including three organic acids, two furan compounds, and two phenol derivatives. The inhibition of the degradation compounds on the cell growth and lipid productivity of the selected oleaginous yeasts were examined. Acetic acid, formic acid, furfural, and vanillin were found to be the strong inhibitors for the fermentation of oleaginous yeasts, while levulinic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and hydroxybenzaldehyde were relatively weak inhibitors. Trichosporon cutaneum 2.1374 was found to be the most adopted strain to the lignocellulose degradation compounds.

                Author and article information

                Braz J Microbiol
                Braz. J. Microbiol
                Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
                Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
                Apr-Jun 2012
                1 June 2012
                : 43
                : 2
                : 627-634
                Microbiology and Metabolic Engineering Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Life Science, Sichuan University , Chengdu, 610064, P.R. China
                Author notes
                * Corresponding Author. Mailing address: College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Sichuan, 610064, P. R. China..; Tel: 86 28 85412842 Fax: 86 28 85412842.; E-mail: geneium@ 123456scu.edu.cn
                © Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia

                All the content of the journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons License

                : 18 March 2011
                : 21 April 2011
                : 16 January 2012
                Environmental Microbiology
                Research Paper

                oleaginous microorganisms,screening,the tibetan plateau,biodiversity


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