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      Rapid alteration of protein phosphorylation during postmortem: implication in the study of protein phosphorylation

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          Abstract

          Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins. Postmortem tissues are widely being utilized in the biomedical studies, but the effects of postmortem on protein phosphorylation have not been received enough attention. In the present study, we found here that most proteins in mouse brain, heart, liver, and kidney were rapidly dephosphorylated to various degrees during 20 sec to 10 min postmortem. Phosphorylation of tau at Thr212 and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9 was reduced by 50% in the brain with 40 sec postmortem, a regular time for tissue processing. During postmortem, phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and AMP activated kinase (AMPK) was increased in the brain, but not in other organs. Perfusion of the brain with cold or room temperature phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) also caused significant alteration of protein phosphorylation. Cooling down and maintaining mouse brains in the ice-cold buffer prevented the alteration effectively. This study suggests that phosphorylation of proteins is rapidly changed during postmortem. Thus, immediate processing of tissues followed by cooling down in ice-cold buffer is vitally important and perfusion has to be avoided when protein phosphorylation is to be studied.

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          Most cited references 29

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          The protein kinase complement of the human genome.

           G. Manning (2002)
          We have catalogued the protein kinase complement of the human genome (the "kinome") using public and proprietary genomic, complementary DNA, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences. This provides a starting point for comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation in normal and disease states, as well as a detailed view of the current state of human genome analysis through a focus on one large gene family. We identify 518 putative protein kinase genes, of which 71 have not previously been reported or described as kinases, and we extend or correct the protein sequences of 56 more kinases. New genes include members of well-studied families as well as previously unidentified families, some of which are conserved in model organisms. Classification and comparison with model organism kinomes identified orthologous groups and highlighted expansions specific to human and other lineages. We also identified 106 protein kinase pseudogenes. Chromosomal mapping revealed several small clusters of kinase genes and revealed that 244 kinases map to disease loci or cancer amplicons.
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            The origins of protein phosphorylation.

             Philip Cohen (2002)
            The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is central to the regulation of most aspects of cell function but, even after the first protein kinase was identified, the general significance of this discovery was slow to be appreciated. Here I review the discovery of protein phosphorylation and give a personal view of the key findings that have helped to shape the field as we know it today.
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              Contributions of protein phosphatases PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP5 to the regulation of tau phosphorylation.

              Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau is believed to lead to neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Recent studies have shown that protein phosphatases (PPs) PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP5 dephosphorylate tau in vitro, but the exact role of each of these phosphatases in the regulation of site-specific phosphorylation of tau in the human brain was unknown. Hence, we investigated the contributions of these PPs to the regulation of tau phosphorylation quantitatively. We found that these four phosphatases all dephosphorylated tau at Ser199, Ser202, Thr205, Thr212, Ser214, Ser235, Ser262, Ser396, Ser404 and Ser409, but with different efficiencies toward different sites. The K(m) values of tau dephosphorylation catalysed by PP1, PP2A and PP5 were 8-12 microm, similar to the intraneuronal tau concentration of human brain, whereas the K(m) of PP2B was fivefold higher. PP2A, PP1, PP5 and PP2B accounted for approximately 71%, approximately 11%, approximately 10% and approximately 7%, respectively, of the total tau phosphatase activity of human brain. The total phosphatase activity and the activities of PP2A and PP5 toward tau were significantly decreased, whereas that of PP2B was increased in AD brain. PP2A activity negatively correlated to the level of tau phosphorylation at the most phosphorylation sites in human brains. Our findings indicate that PP2A is the major tau phosphatase that regulates its phosphorylation at multiple sites in human brain. The abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau is partially due to a downregulation of PP2A activity in AD brain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                29 October 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Neurochemistry, Inge Grundke-Iqbal Research Floor, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities , Staten Island, New York 10314, USA
                [2 ]Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuroregeneration, Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University , Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, P. R. China
                [3 ]School of Pharmacy, Nantong University , Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, P. R. China
                Author notes
                Article
                srep15709
                10.1038/srep15709
                4625177
                26511732
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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