Qualitative research explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health
care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available,
no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design.
To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies
(in depth interviews and focus groups).
We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL,
systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major
medical journals and reference lists of relevant publications for existing checklists
used to assess qualitative studies. Seventy-six items from 22 checklists were compiled
into a comprehensive list. All items were grouped into three domains: (i) research
team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. Duplicate
items and those that were ambiguous, too broadly defined and impractical to assess
Items most frequently included in the checklists related to sampling method, setting
for data collection, method of data collection, respondent validation of findings,
method of recording data, description of the derivation of themes and inclusion of
supporting quotations. We grouped all items into three domains: (i) research team
and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting.
The criteria included in COREQ, a 32-item checklist, can help researchers to report
important aspects of the research team, study methods, context of the study, findings,
analysis and interpretations.