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      Characterisation of Pasteurella multocida isolates from pigs with pneumonia in Korea

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          Abstract

          Background

          Pasteurella multocida is responsible for significant economic losses in pigs worldwide. In clinically diseased pigs, most P. multocida isolates are characterised as subspecies multocida, biovar 2 or 3 and capsular type A or D; however, there is little information regarding subspecies, biovars, and other capsular types of P. multocida isolates in Korea. Here, we provided information covering an extended time period regarding P. multocida in pigs with pneumonia in Korea using phenotypic and genotypic characterisations and data associated with the minimum inhibitory concentrations.

          Results

          The overall prevalence of P. multocida between 2008 and 2016 was 16.8% (240/1430), with 85% of the P. multocida isolates (204/240) coinfected with other respiratory pathogens. Of the 240 isolates, 166 were included in this study; all of these P. multocida isolates were characterised as subspecies multocida and the most prevalent phenotypes were represented by biovar 3 (68.7%; n = 114) and capsular type A (69.9%; n = 116). Additionally, three capsular type F isolates were identified, with this representing the first report of such isolates in Korea. All biovar 1 and 2 isolates were capsular types F and A, respectively. The virulence-associated gene distribution was variable; all capsular type A and D isolates harboured pmHAS and hsf-1, respectively ( P < 0.001), with type F (biovar 1) significantly correlated with hsf-1 ( P < 0.05) and pfhA ( P < 0.01), biovar 2 highly associated with pfhA and pmHAS, and biovar 3 significantly correlated with hsf-1, pmHAS, and hgbB ( P < 0.001), whereas biovar 13 was related only to hgbB ( P < 0.05). The highest resistance rate was found to be to oxytetracycline (63.3%), followed by florfenicol (16.3%).

          Conclusions

          P. multocida subspecies multocida, biovar 3, and capsular type A was the most prevalent isolate in this study, and our findings indicated the emergence of capsular type F in Korea. Moreover, prudent use of oxytetracycline and florfenicol is required because of the identified high resistance rates. Further studies are required for continuous monitoring of the antimicrobial resistance, prevalence, and epidemiological characterisation of P. multocida, and experimental infection models are needed to define the pathogenicity of capsular type F.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs.

          Respiratory disease in pigs is common in modern pork production worldwide and is often referred to as porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PRDC is polymicrobial in nature, and results from infection with various combinations of primary and secondary respiratory pathogens. As a true multifactorial disease, environmental conditions, population size, management strategies and pig-specific factors such as age and genetics also play critical roles in the outcome of PRDC. While non-infectious factors are important in the initiation and outcome of cases of PRDC, the focus of this review is on infectious factors only. There are a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens commonly associated with PRDC including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO) and Pasteurella multocida (PMULT). The pathogenesis of viral respiratory disease is typically associated with destruction of the mucocilliary apparatus and with interference and decrease of the function of pulmonary alveolar and intravascular macrophages. Bacterial pathogens often contribute to PRDC by activation of inflammation via enhanced cytokine responses. With recent advancements in pathogen detection methods, the importance of polymicrobial disease has become more evident, and identification of interactions of pathogens and their mechanisms of disease potentiation has become a topic of great interest. For example, combined infection of pigs with typically low pathogenic organisms like PCV2 and MHYO results in severe respiratory disease. Although the body of knowledge has advanced substantially in the last 15 years, much more needs to be learned about the pathogenesis and best practices for control of swine respiratory disease outbreaks caused by concurrent infection of two or more pathogens. This review discusses the latest findings on polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs.
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            Development of PCR assays for species- and type-specific identification of Pasteurella multocida isolates.

            Genomic subtractive hybridization of closely related Pasteurella multocida isolates has generated clones useful in distinguishing hemorrhagic septicemia-causing type B strains from other P. multocida serotypes. Oligonucleotide primers designed during the sequencing of these clones have proved valuable in the development of PCR assays for rapid species- and type-specific detection of P. multocida and of type B:2 in particular. This study demonstrated that the primer pair designed from the sequence of the clone 6b (KTT72 and KTSP61) specifically amplified a DNA fragment from types B:2, B:5, and B:2,5 P. multocida and that the primers KMT1T7 and KMT1SP6 produced an amplification product unique to all P. multocida isolates analyzed. It was also shown that PCR amplification performed directly on bacterial colonies or cultures represents an extremely rapid, sensitive method of P. multocida identification.
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              Virulence genotype of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from different hosts with various disease status.

              To learn more about the molecular biology of Pasteurella multocida 289 strains isolated from various clinically healthy and diseased hosts were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes (capA, B, D, E, and F) and 14 virulence associated genes by PCR and DNA-DNA-hybridization. As expected, capsule type A strains were highly adapted to bovines (92.3%) and poultry (85.7%) while we mainly found capA (34.9%)- and capD (58.1%)-positive strains in swine. A noticeable amount of capD-positive strains also originated from small ruminants (34.9%) and capF was detected in wild type strains from diseased cattle (2.2%) and cats (7.4%). None of the isolates harboured capE, while capB was exclusively found in all strains from buffaloes. Nearly all isolates showed a combination of genes encoding outer membrane proteins, colonization factors, iron aquisition factors and superoxid-dismutases without any clue for host specificity. In contrast, the transferrin binding protein encoding gene tbpA (31.5%) was limited to ruminant strains and only 37.0% of all P. multocida strains harboured pfhA, coding for a filamentous hemagglutinin, supposed to be a putative adhesion- und serum resistance factor. PfhA revealed a strong positive association to the outcome of disease in bovine hosts and in combination with toxA to that in swine. The dermonecrotoxin encoding toxA, present in 12.5% of all strains, was detected in isolates from swine, small ruminants, cattle, and poultry. A significant association to the disease status, however, was only existent in swine, although with 66.7% we found a notably high prevalence of the toxin gene among strains from small ruminants. The genes toxA, tbpA and pfhA as well as capsule biosynthesis genes are supposed to be important epidemiological marker genes for characterizing P. multocida field strains.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                whdgh2339@naver.com
                biotics@korea.kr
                ohsangik@korea.kr
                bjso@korea.kr
                kwi0621@jbnu.ac.kr
                +82-54-912-0491 , kimhy@korea.kr , jnm4jesus@naver.com
                Journal
                BMC Vet Res
                BMC Vet. Res
                BMC Veterinary Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                1746-6148
                25 April 2019
                25 April 2019
                2019
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1798 4034, GRID grid.466502.3, Animal Disease Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, ; 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon, Gyeongbuk 39660 Republic of Korea
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 4320, GRID grid.411545.0, Laboratory of Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, , Chonbuk National University, ; Iksan, 54596 Republic of Korea
                Article
                1861
                10.1186/s12917-019-1861-5
                6482538
                31023320
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs of the Republic of Korea
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

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