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      Cost of oropharyngeal dysphagia after stroke: protocol for a systematic review


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          Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a major disorder following stroke. OD can produce alterations in both the efficacy and safety of deglutition and may result in malnutrition, dehydration, frailty, respiratory infections and pneumonia. These complications can be avoided by early detection and treatment of OD in poststroke patients, and hospital stays, medication and mortality rates can be reduced. In addition to acute in-hospital costs from OD complications, there are other costs related to poststroke OD such as direct non-healthcare costs or indirect costs. The objective of this systematic review is to assess and summarise literature on the costs related to OD in poststroke patients.

          Methods and analysis

          A systematic review of studies on the cost of OD and its complications (aspiration, malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia and death) in patients who had a stroke will be performed from the perspectives of the hospital, the healthcare system and/or the society. The main outcomes of interest are the costs related to poststroke OD. We will search MEDLINE, Embase and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Studies will be included if they are partial economic evaluation studies, studies that provide information on costs in adult (>17 years) poststroke patients with OD and/or its complications (malnutrition, dehydration, frailty, respiratory infections and pneumonia) or economic evaluation studies in which the cost of this condition has been estimated. Studies will be excluded if they refer to oesophageal dysphagia or OD caused by causes other than stroke. Main study information will be presented and summarised in tables, separately for studies that provide incremental costs attributable to OD or its complications and studies that report the effect of OD or its complications on total costs of stroke, and according to the perspective from which costs were measured.

          Ethics and dissemination

          The results of this systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

          PROSPERO registration number


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          Most cited references10

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          The effect of bolus viscosity on swallowing function in neurogenic dysphagia.

          To assess the pathophysiology and treatment of neurogenic dysphagia. 46 patients with brain damage, 46 with neurodegenerative diseases and eight healthy volunteers were studied by videofluoroscopy while swallowing 3-20 mL liquid (20.4 mPa s), nectar (274.4 mPa s) and pudding (3931.2 mPa s) boluses. Volunteers presented a safe and efficacious swallow, short swallow response ( or =0.33 mJ). Brain damage patients presented: (i) 21.6% aspiration of liquids, reduced by nectar (10.5%) and pudding (5.3%) viscosity (P or =806 ms) with a delay in laryngeal closure (> or =245 ms), and weak bolus propulsion forces (< or =0.20 mJ). Increasing viscosity did not affect timing of swallow response or bolus kinetic energy. Patients with neurogenic dysphagia presented high prevalence of videofluoroscopic signs of impaired safety and efficacy of swallow, and were at high risk of respiratory and nutritional complications. Impaired safety is associated with slow oropharyngeal reconfiguration and impaired efficacy with low bolus propulsion. Increasing bolus viscosity greatly improves swallowing function in neurological patients.
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            Swallowing function after stroke: prognosis and prognostic factors at 6 months.

            Swallowing dysfunction (dysphagia) is common and disabling after acute stroke, but its impact on long-term prognosis for potential complications and the recovery from swallowing dysfunction remain uncertain. We aimed to prospectively study the prognosis of swallowing function over the first 6 months after acute stroke and to identify the important independent clinical and videofluoroscopic prognostic factors at baseline that are associated with an increased risk of swallowing dysfunction and complications. We prospectively assembled an inception cohort of 128 hospital-referred patients with acute first stroke. We assessed swallowing function clinically and videofluoroscopically, within a median of 3 and 10 days, respectively, of stroke onset, using standardized methods and diagnostic criteria. All patients were followed up prospectively for 6 months for the occurrence of death, recurrent stroke, chest infection, recovery of swallowing function, and return to normal diet. At presentation, a swallowing abnormality was detected clinically in 65 patients (51%; 95% CI, 42% to 60%) and videofluoroscopically in 82 patients (64%; 95% CI, 55% to 72%). During the subsequent 6 months, 26 patients (20%; 95% CI, 14% to 28%) suffered a chest infection. At 6 months after stroke, 97 of the 112 survivors (87%; 95% CI, 79% to 92%) had returned to their prestroke diet. Clinical evidence of a swallowing abnormality was present in 56 patients (50%; 95% CI, 40% to 60%). Videofluoroscopy was performed at 6 months in 67 patients who had a swallowing abnormality at baseline; it showed penetration of the false cords in 34 patients and aspiration in another 17. The single independent baseline predictor of chest infection during the 6-month follow-up period was a delayed or absent swallowing reflex (detected by videofluoroscopy). The single independent predictor of failure to return to normal diet was delayed oral transit (detected by videofluoroscopy). Independent predictors of the combined outcome event of swallowing impairment, chest infection, or aspiration at 6 months were videofluoroscopic evidence of delayed oral transit and penetration of contrast into the laryngeal vestibule, age >70 years, and male sex. Swallowing function should be assessed in all acute stroke patients because swallowing dysfunction is common, it persists in many patients, and complications frequently arise. The assessment of swallowing function should be both clinical and videofluoroscopic. The clinical and videofluoroscopic features at presentation that are important predictors of subsequent swallowing abnormalities and complications are videofluoroscopic evidence of delayed oral transit, a delayed or absent swallow reflex, and penetration. These findings require validation in other studies.
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              AGA technical review on management of oropharyngeal dysphagia.


                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                14 December 2018
                : 8
                : 12
                [1 ] departmentPharmacy Department , Consorci Sanitari del Maresme. Hospital de Mataró. , Mataro, Spain
                [2 ] departmentResearch Unit , Consorci Sanitari del Maresme , Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ] departmentCentro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de enfermedades hepáticas y digestivas (CIBERehd) , Instituto de Salud Carlos III , Barcelona, Spain
                [4 ] departmentGastrointestinal Physiology Laboratory , Consorci Sanitari del Maresme, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona , Catalunya, Spain
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Sergio Marin; smarin@ 123456csdm.cat
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Funded by: Nutricia Advanced Medical Nutrition;
                Health Economics
                Custom metadata

                oropharyngeal dysphagia,deglutition disorders,pneumonia, aspiration,respiratory aspiration,malnutrition,stroke,stroke rehabilitation,cerebral infarction,cerebral hemorrhage,economics,health resources


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