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      A Closer Look at Estrogen Receptor Mutations in Breast Cancer and Their Implications for Estrogen and Antiestrogen Responses

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          Abstract

          Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. More than 70% of BC cases express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), a central transcription factor that stimulates the proliferation of breast cancer cells, usually in the presence of estrogen. While most cases of ER-positive BC initially respond to antiestrogen therapies, a high percentage of cases develop resistance to treatment over time. The recent discovery of mutated forms of ERα that result in constitutively active forms of the receptor in the metastatic-resistance stage of BC has provided a strong rationale for the development of new antiestrogens. These molecules targeting clinically relevant ERα mutants and a combination with other pharmacological inhibitors of specific pathways may constitute alternative treatments to improve clinical practice in the fight against metastatic-resistant ER-positive BC. In this review, we summarize the latest advances regarding the particular involvement of point mutations of ERα in endocrine resistance. We also discuss the involvement of synonymous ERα mutations with respect to co-translational folding of the receptor and ribosome biogenesis in breast carcinogenesis.

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          Most cited references 99

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          Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumors

          Summary We analyzed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, mRNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously-defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at > 10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the Luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein expression-defined subgroups, possibly contributed by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signaling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/p-HER2/HER1/p-HER1 signature within the HER2-Enriched expression subtype. Comparison of Basal-like breast tumors with high-grade Serous Ovarian tumors showed many molecular commonalities, suggesting a related etiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biologic finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biologic subtypes of breast cancer.
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            Biological determinants of endocrine resistance in breast cancer.

            Endocrine therapies targeting oestrogen action (anti-oestrogens, such as tamoxifen, and aromatase inhibitors) decrease mortality from breast cancer, but their efficacy is limited by intrinsic and acquired therapeutic resistance. Candidate molecular biomarkers and gene expression signatures of tamoxifen response emphasize the importance of deregulation of proliferation and survival signalling in endocrine resistance. However, definition of the specific genetic lesions and molecular processes that determine clinical endocrine resistance is incomplete. The development of large-scale computational and genetic approaches offers the promise of identifying the mediators of endocrine resistance that may be exploited as potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers of response in the clinic.
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              Endocrine-therapy-resistant ESR1 variants revealed by genomic characterization of breast-cancer-derived xenografts.

              To characterize patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) for functional studies, we made whole-genome comparisons with originating breast cancers representative of the major intrinsic subtypes. Structural and copy number aberrations were found to be retained with high fidelity. However, at the single-nucleotide level, variable numbers of PDX-specific somatic events were documented, although they were only rarely functionally significant. Variant allele frequencies were often preserved in the PDXs, demonstrating that clonal representation can be transplantable. Estrogen-receptor-positive PDXs were associated with ESR1 ligand-binding-domain mutations, gene amplification, or an ESR1/YAP1 translocation. These events produced different endocrine-therapy-response phenotypes in human, cell line, and PDX endocrine-response studies. Hence, deeply sequenced PDX models are an important resource for the search for genome-forward treatment options and capture endocrine-drug-resistance etiologies that are not observed in standard cell lines. The originating tumor genome provides a benchmark for assessing genetic drift and clonal representation after transplantation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                13 January 2021
                January 2021
                : 22
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Inserm, EHESP, Irset (Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail)-UMR_S1085, Rennes University, F-35000 Rennes, France; lea.clusan@ 123456univ-rennes1.fr (L.C.); pascale.le-goff@ 123456univ-rennes1.fr (P.L.G.); gilles.flouriot@ 123456univ-rennes1.fr (G.F.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: farzad.pakdel@ 123456univ-rennes1.fr ; Tel.: +33-(0)22-323-5132
                Article
                ijms-22-00756
                10.3390/ijms22020756
                7828590
                33451133
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                estrogen receptor, breast cancer, endocrine resistance, mutation, receptor folding

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