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      Self-reported cardiovascular health of teachers: results from the 5-year follow-up of the Gutenberg Health Study cohort


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          Following an exploratory approach, we examined cardiovascular disease risk factors at baseline and the 5-year incidence proportion of self-reported doctor-diagnosed cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in teachers and other occupational groups of the Gutenberg Health Study.


          Study participants lived in the region of Mainz, Germany. Data from 6510 working participants without prevalent CVD at baseline (2007–2012) were analyzed. Participants were teachers ( n = 215), other professionals from the health, social or educational (HSE) fields ( n = 1061) or worked outside the HSE fields ( n = 5234). For occupational comparisons, we estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for each CVD risk factor at baseline with robust Poisson regression analyses. We calculated crude CVD incidence rates based on the observed 5-year CVD cumulative incidence at follow-up and estimated age-weighted incidence proportions. All analyses were stratified by sex.


          Male non-HSE workers showed a higher prevalence of smoking and physical inactivity than male teachers (PR 2.26; 95%-CI: 1.06–4.82/PR 1.89; 95%-CI: 1.24–2.87). In contrast, non-HSE workers and other HSE professionals were less likely to have reported an unhealthy alcohol intake than teachers. Differences were attenuated after SES-adjustment. We did not detect occupational group-specific differences in CVD incidence. However, there were only two cases of CVD among the teachers.


          Particularly male teachers showed a healthier lifestyle regarding physical inactivity and smoking. Nevertheless, occupational-medical care practitioners and researchers need to be aware of the relatively heightened prevalence of unhealthy alcohol intake in female and male teachers, and in absolute terms, the high hypertension prevalence in male teachers.

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          Reproducibility and relative validity of the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity

          The purpose of this study is to determine reproducibility and relative validity of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH). Participants (36 men and 14 women, aged 27-58) were asked to complete the SQUASH twice with an inbetween period of approximately 5 weeks. In addition, participants wore the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) Activity Monitor for a 2-week period following the first questionnaire. The Spearman correlation for overall reproducibility of the SQUASH was 0.58 (95%-CI 0.36-0.74). Correlations for the reproducibility of the separate questions varied between 0.44 and 0.96. Spearman's correlation coefficient between CSA readings and the total activity score was 0.45 (95%-CI 0.17-0.66). In conclusion, the SQUASH is a fairly reliable and reasonably valid questionnaire and may be used to order subjects according to their level of physical activity in an adult population. Because the SQUASH is a short and simple questionnaire, it may proof to be a very useful tool for the evaluation of health enhancing physical activity in large populations.
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            [Measurement of the socioeconomic status within the German Health Update 2009 (GEDA)].

            The socioeconomic status (SES) is a central analytical concept for epidemiologic research and health reporting in Germany. Within the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study (GCP), a multidimensional aggregated index of SES has been developed, which is used to this date. We have revised this index critically and reworked it according to the necessities of German health monitoring at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). The main changes involve the operationalization and categorization of the status-constituting dimensions education, occupation, and income as well as the categorization of the resulting socioeconomic status groups. This paper explains the steps of the revision process and the ideas behind it. In addition, it provides empirical evidence on the association of the revised index with three important health outcomes (self-rated health, obesity, and smoking) using data of the German Health Update 2009 (GEDA) study. It is planned to apply the revised SES concept in all studies on German health monitoring at the RKI, i.e., not only to GEDA but also to the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) and the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) in the same way.
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              Validity of self-reported diagnoses leading to hospitalization: a comparison of self-reports with hospital records in a prospective study of American adults.

              The authors compared interview reports with hospitalization records of participants in a nationally representative survey to determine the accuracy of self-reports of ischemic heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, ulcers, cataract, hip fracture, colon polyps, and cancers of the colon, breast, prostate, and lung. The study cohort consisted of 10,523 participants from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1971-1975 who were aged 25-74 years at the baseline examination and who completed a follow-up interview in 1982-1984. Self-reports of hospitalization for breast cancer were confirmed as accurate for 100% of cases where a hospital record was available. Self-report accuracy was also high for ischemic heart disease (84%), cataract (83%), and hip fracture (81%); it was moderate for lung cancer (78%), prostate cancer (75%), gallbladder disease (74%), colon cancer (71%), and stroke (67%); but it was low for ulcers (54%) and colon polyps (32%). Some of the self-reports of ulcers (20%), hip fracture (9%), ischemic heart disease (7%), and stroke (7%) were found to reflect diagnoses of other conditions of anatomic proximity. Accuracy of self-reports improved with higher levels of education, but was not generally related to age, gender, race, alcohol use, or smoking. The results suggest that self-reports of some diseases can be taken as accurate, but self-reports of other conditions might require medical record verification in epidemiologic follow-up studies.

                Author and article information

                Int Arch Occup Environ Health
                Int Arch Occup Environ Health
                International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                26 October 2020
                26 October 2020
                : 94
                : 2
                : 251-259
                [1 ]GRID grid.410607.4, Institute for Teachers’ Health, , University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, ; Kupferbergterrasse 17-19, 55116 Mainz, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.432860.b, ISNI 0000 0001 2220 0888, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, , BAuA Berlin, ; Berlin, Germany
                [3 ]GRID grid.410607.4, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, ; Mainz, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.4488.0, ISNI 0000 0001 2111 7257, IPAS Dresden: Institute and Polyclinic of Occupational and Social Medicine, Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, , TU Dresden, ; Dresden, Germany
                [5 ]FFAW: The Freiburg Research Center for Occupational Sciences, Freiburg, Germany
                [6 ]GRID grid.410607.4, Institute of Occupational, Social, and Environmental Medicine, , University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, ; Mainz, Germany
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2020, corrected publication 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 5 August 2019
                : 28 August 2020
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100006522, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin;
                Award ID: project number F2338
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004346, Stiftung Rheinland-Pfalz für Innovation;
                Award ID: AZ 961-386261/733
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100008349, Boehringer Ingelheim;
                Funded by: PHILIPS Medical Systems
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002347, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung;
                Award ID: 01EO1503
                Award Recipient :
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021

                Occupational & Environmental medicine
                cardiovascular risk factors,cardiovascular diseases,teachers,social occupations,occupational medicine


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