Objective To explore character strengths of college students who sought counseling, and its relationship with mental health.
Methods A total of 180 college students who sought counseling were investigated by using the short version of Character Strengths Questionnaire and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) during March 2020 to October 2021.
Results The top five character strengths of college students who sought counseling were appreciation, authenticity, gratitude, humor, love of learning (8.39± 1.64, 7.82±1.74, 7.73±1.57, 7.29±1.81, 7.17±1.88); The bottom five character strengths were kindness, bravery, persistence, zest, leadership (5.59±1.75, 5.81±1.30, 5.86±1.72, 5.98±1.59, 6.06±1.60). Linear regression analysis found love, social intelligence and insight showed associations with different dimensions of mental health, with correlation coefficient of each regression equation between −0.12 and 0.16, and the coefficient of determination between 0.05 and 0.19 ( P<0.01). Love had a negativeassociation with all factors of SCL-90 (β= −0.314–−0.159, P<0.05), which could explain 3.3%–12.5% of the variation of each factor. Social intelligence had a negative association with obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity and anxiety (β= −0.200–−0.150, P<0.05), which can explain 1.6%-3.2% of the variation. Insight had a positive association with somatization, hostility and paranoia (β=0.168-0.279, P<0.05), which can explain 2.3%–3.8% of the variation.
Conclusion The lack and excess of character strengths is associated with mental health problems. Therefore, it would be more effective to help counseling cases build an appropriate and balanced character in the context of a strengths-based approach.
【摘要】 目的 探讨咨询个案的性格优势特征及其与心理健康的关系, 为积极心理治疗提供理论依据。 方法 于2020 年3月至2021年10月, 采用性格优势问卷简版和症状自评量表 (SCL-90)对某髙校前来咨询的180名个案进行调査。 结果 咨询个案排在前5位的性格优势依次是欣赏、诚实、感恩、幽默和热爱学习 [(8.39±1.64) (7.82±1.74) (7.73±1.57) (7.29±1.81) (7.17±1.88)分]; 排在后 5 位的是善良、勇敢、毅力、热情和领导力 [(5.59±1.75) (5.81±1.30) (5.86±1.72) (5.98±1.59) (6.06±1.60)分]。多元线性回归分析发现, 爱、社会智力、洞察力等对心理健康不同维度有预测作用, 各回归 方程的回归系数为 −0.123 ~0.162, 决定系数为0.049 ~0.191, P值均<0.01。爱对各项因子均具有反向预测作用 (β= −0.314~−0.159, P 值均<0.05), 可解释各因子变异量的3.3%~12.5%。社会智力对强迫、人际敏感和焦虑具有反向预测作 用(β=−0.200~−0.150, P值均<0.05), 可解释3个因子变异量的1.6%~3.2%。洞察力对躯体化、敌对和偏执具有正向预测 作用 (β=0.168 ~0.279, P值均<0.05), 可解释3个因子变异量的2.3% ~3.8%。 结论 性格优势的缺乏和过度均会给个体 带来心理问题。在以性格优势为基础的积极心理治疗的背景下, 在了解来访者性格优势的基础上, 帮助其发展出一种恰当 而均衡的性格优势会更有效。