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      Predicting intradialytic hypotension using heart rate variability

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          Abstract

          This study aimed to identify whether a new method using heart rate variability (HRV) could predict intradialytic hypotension (IDH) for one month in advance for patients undergoing prevalent hemodialysis. A total 71 patients were enrolled, and baseline clinical characteristics and laboratory results were collected when HRV was measured, then, the frequency of IDH was collected during the observation period. HRV parameters included heart rate, R-R interval, the standard deviation of N-N interval, the square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals, very low frequency, low frequency, high frequency, total power, and low frequency/high frequency ratio. During the one-month observation period, 28 patients experienced 85 cases of IDH (10.0% of a total 852 dialysis sessions). Among the clinical and laboratory parameters, ultrafiltration rate, prior history of diabetes, coronary artery disease, or congestive heart failure, age, intact parathyroid hormone level, and history of antihypertensive drug use were integrated into the multivariate model, referred to as a basic model, which showed significant ability to predict IDH (the area-under-curve [AUC], 0.726; p = 0.002). In HRV parameters, changes between the early and middle phases of hemodialysis (referred to Δ) were identified as significant independent variables. New models were built from the combination of Δ values with the basic model. Among them, a model with the highest AUC value (AUC, 804; p < 0.001) was compared to the basic model and demonstrated improved performance when HRV parameters were used ( p = 0.049). Based on our results, it is possible that future IDH might be predicted more accurately using HRV.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Hemodialysis-associated hypotension as an independent risk factor for two-year mortality in hemodialysis patients.

          The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and mortality in hemodialysis patients has remained controversial. Some studies suggested that a lower pre- or postdialysis BP was associated with excess mortality, while others showed poorer outcome in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of hemodialysis-associated hypotension on mortality. We recruited 1244 patients (685 males; mean age, 60 +/- 13 years) who underwent hemodialysis in 28 units during the two-year study period beginning in December 1999. Pre-, intra-, and postdialysis BP, and BP upon standing soon after hemodialysis, were measured in all patients at entry. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect on mortality of pre-, intra-, and postdialysis BP, a fall in BP during hemodialysis, and a fall in BP upon standing soon after hemodialysis. During the study period, 149 patients died. Logistic models identified the lowest intradialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) and degree of fall in SBP upon standing soon after hemodialysis as significant factors affecting mortality, but not pre- or postdialysis SBP and diastolic BP. The adjusted odds ratio for death was 0.79 (95% CI 0.64-0.98) when the lowest intradialysis SBP was analyzed in increments of 20 mm Hg, and was 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.98) when the fall in SBP upon standing soon after hemodialysis was analyzed in increments of 10 mm Hg. These results suggest that intradialysis hypotension and orthostatic hypotension after hemodialysis are significant and independent factors affecting mortality in hemodialysis patients.
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            Association of mortality risk with various definitions of intradialytic hypotension.

            Intradialytic hypotension is a serious and frequent complication of hemodialysis; however, there is no evidence-based consensus definition of intradialytic hypotension. As a result, coherent evaluation of the effects of intradialytic hypotension is difficult. We analyzed data from 1409 patients in the HEMO Study and 10,392 patients from a single large dialysis organization to investigate the associations of commonly used intradialytic hypotension definitions and mortality. Intradialytic hypotension definitions were selected a priori on the basis of literature review. For each definition, patients were characterized as having intradialytic hypotension if they met the corresponding definition in at least 30% of baseline exposure period treatments or characterized as control otherwise. Overall and within subgroups of patients with predialysis systolic BP<120 or 120-159 mmHg, an absolute nadir systolic BP<90 mmHg was most potently associated with mortality. Within the subgroup of patients with predialysis BP≥160 mmHg, nadir BP<100 mmHg was most potently associated with mortality. Intradialytic hypotension definitions that considered symptoms, interventions, and decreases in BP during dialysis were not associated with outcome, and when added to nadir BP, symptom and intervention criteria did not accentuate associations with mortality. Our results suggest that nadir-based definitions best capture the association between intradialytic hypotension and mortality.
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              Pathophysiology of dialysis hypotension: an update.

               J Daugirdas (2001)
              Dialysis hypotension occurs because a large volume of blood water and solutes are removed over a short period of time, overwhelming normal compensatory mechanisms, including plasma refilling and reduction of venous capacity, due to reduction of pressure transmission to veins. In some patients, seemingly paradoxical and inappropriate reduction of sympathetic tone may occur, causing reduction of arteriolar resistance, increased transmission of pressure to veins, and corresponding increase in venous capacity. Increased sequestration of blood in veins under conditions of hypovolemia reduces cardiac filling, cardiac output, and, ultimately, blood pressure. Adenosine release due to tissue ischemia may participate in reducing norepinephrine release locally, and activation of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex, perhaps in patients with certain but as yet undefined cardiac pathology, may be responsible for sudden dialysis hypotension. Patients with diastolic dysfunction may be more sensitive to the effects of reduced cardiac filling. The ultimate solution is reducing the ultrafiltration rate by use of longer dialysis sessions, more frequent dialysis, or reduction in salt intake. Increasing dialysis solution sodium chloride levels helps maintain blood volume and refilling but ultimately increases thirst and interdialytic weight gain, with a possible adverse effect on hypertension. Blood volume monitoring with ultrafiltration or dialysis solution sodium feedback loops are promising new strategies. Maintaining tissue oxygenation via an adequate blood hemoglobin level seems to be important. Use of adenosine antagonists remains experimental. Given the importance of sympathetic withdrawal, the use of pharmacologic sympathetic agonists is theoretically an attractive therapeutic strategy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                eylee@sch.ac.kr
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                22 February 2019
                22 February 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1798 4157, GRID grid.412677.1, Department of Internal Medicine, , Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, ; Cheonan, Korea
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1798 4157, GRID grid.412677.1, Department of Biostatistics, , Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, ; Cheonan, Korea
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1773 6524, GRID grid.412674.2, Institute of Tissue Regeneration, , College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, ; Cheonan, Korea
                Article
                39295
                10.1038/s41598-019-39295-y
                6385196
                30796327
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100003710, Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI);
                Award ID: HI17C-2059-010017
                Award Recipient :
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