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      Prevalence, toxigenic potential and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus isolated from ready-to-eat meats


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          An epidemiological surveillance for Staphylococci contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) meats from Enugu State, Nigeria, was carried out to determine the prevalence, species distribution, toxigenic potential and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the organisms and hence the microbiological and toxicological safety of the meats.

          Materials and Methods:

          Isolation and phenotypic Staphylococcus detection were done according to standard microbiological methods. Phenotypic resistance to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents was determined by disc diffusion method. Molecular characterization of the isolates to species level and detection of selected toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistance genes were done by PCR methods.


          Twenty-four (9.4%) of the 255 meat samples investigated were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. Twenty-four Staphylococcus isolates belonging to six species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) were identified. Four (16.7%) isolates harbored genes coding for exfoliative toxin-A. Ten (41.7%) isolates were multidrug resistant, while mecA, tetK, mphC, ermT and ermC were the antimicrobial-resistance genes detected in the isolates. Meat samples sourced from motor parks (16.7%) and open markets (8.5%) were the most contaminated.


          9.4% of RTE meats sampled were contaminated with toxigenic and multidrug resistance CoNS. Beef was the most contaminated RTE meat type and harbored all the toxigenic and most of the antibiotic-resistant genes detected. Meat samples from motor parks had the highest staphylococcal contamination (16.7%), while those from mechanic village had the least (2.4%). Majority (79.2%) of the isolates were not susceptible to fusidic acid but none exhibited antimicrobial-resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, linezolid or teicoplanin. Food safety authorities in the study area should work proactively to massively improve the hygienic practices of meat vendors; in order to limit staphylococcal contamination of RTE meats and the associated public health problems.

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          Most cited references34

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          Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States.

          The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently revised their estimates for the annual number of foodborne illnesses; 48 million Americans suffer from domestically acquired foodborne illness associated with 31 identified pathogens and a broad category of unspecified agents. Consequently, economic studies based on the previous estimates are now obsolete. This study was conducted to provide improved and updated estimates of the cost of foodborne illness by adding a replication of the 2011 CDC model to existing cost-of-illness models. The basic cost-of-illness model includes economic estimates for medical costs, productivity losses, and illness-related mortality (based on hedonic value-of-statistical-life studies). The enhanced cost-of-illness model replaces the productivity loss estimates with a more inclusive pain, suffering, and functional disability measure based on monetized quality-adjusted life year estimates. Costs are estimated for each pathogen and a broader class of unknown pathogens. The addition of updated cost data and improvements to methodology enhanced the performance of each existing economic model. Uncertainty in these models was characterized using Monte Carlo simulations in @Risk version 5.5. With this model, the average cost per case of foodborne illness was $1,626 (90% credible interval [CI], $607 to $3,073) for the enhanced cost-of-illness model and $1,068 (90% CI, $683 to $1,646) for the basic model. The resulting aggregated annual cost of illness was $77.7 billion (90% CI, $28.6 to $144.6 billion) and $51.0 billion (90% CI, $31.2 to $76.1 billion) for the enhanced and basic models, respectively.
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            Rapid and accurate species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci by using the sodA gene as a target.

            Simple PCR and sequencing assays that utilize a single pair of degenerate primers were used to characterize a 429-bp-long DNA fragment internal (sodA(int)) to the sodA gene encoding the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase in 40 coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CNS) type strains. The topology of the phylogenetic tree obtained was in general agreement with that which was inferred from an analysis of their 16S rRNA or hsp60 gene sequences. Sequence analysis revealed that the staphylococcal sodA genes exhibit a higher divergence than does the corresponding 16S ribosomal DNA. These results confirm that the sodA gene constitutes a highly discriminative target sequence for differentiating closely related bacterial species. Clinical isolates that could not be identified at the species level by phenotypical tests were identified by use of this database. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this method for rapid and accurate species identification of CNS isolates, although it does not allow discrimination of subspecies. The sodA sequence polymorphisms observed with staphylococcal species offer good opportunities for the development of assays based on DNA chip technologies.
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              Detection, molecular characterization, and clonal diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 and CC97 in Spanish slaughter pigs of different age groups.

              The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughter pigs, to characterize the recovered isolates, and to investigate their genomic relatedness. Nasal swabs were collected from 53 finishing-pigs (F-pigs) and 53 suckling-piglets (S-piglets) at two different abattoirs in La Rioja (Northern Spain) coming from six production holdings. MRSA isolates were characterized by spa−, agr−, SCCmec−, and multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-ApaI, toxin gene profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility, and determination of antimicrobial resistance genes. MRSA isolates were recovered from 11 F-pigs (14 isolates) and 26 S-piglets (30 isolates). Forty of the 44MRSA presented the spa-types t011, t108, t1197, and t2346, which corresponded to the sequence type ST398 and to the clonal complex CC398. Interestingly, the remaining four isolates from F-pigs presented the spa-type t3992, and they were ascribed to a new sequence type named ST1379 (a single-locus variant of ST97), which was included in clonal complex CC97. Five PFGE-ApaI clusters with up to nine individual patterns detected among our MRSA and low genomic relatedness was observed between F-pig and S-piglet isolates. All MRSA were positive for hla, hld, and hlg hemolysin genes. ST1379 isolates harbored eta, lukE/D, and hlg-2 toxin genes, whereas ST398 isolates were positive for hlb. A great variety of distinct resistance gene patterns were observed, most of them coming from F-pig isolates. MRSA virulence properties seem to be dependent of the isolate clonal lineage. This study showed that slaughter pigs are frequently colonized by MRSA CC398; moreover, the detection of strains belonging to CC97 underlines that other lineages are also able to spread in livestock. Further studies should assess the risk of CC398 and non-CC398 MRSA to enter the food chain as well as the human health implications.

                Author and article information

                Vet World
                Vet World
                Veterinary World
                Veterinary World (India )
                September 2018
                05 September 2018
                : 11
                : 9
                : 1214-1221
                [1 ]Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria
                [2 ]Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
                [3 ]Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
                Author notes
                Copyright: © Okoli, et al.

                Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article

                antibiotic resistance,food safety,nigeria,polymerase chain reaction,ready-to-eat meats,staphylococcus


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