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      Chronic kidney disease and urological disorders: systematic use of uroflowmetry in nephropathic patients

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          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition. Urologic disorders are known causes of CKD, but often remain undiagnosed and underestimated also for their insidious onset and slow progression. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of urological unrecognized diseases in CKD patients by uroflowmetry.


          We enrolled consecutive stable CKD outpatients. The patients carried out two questionnaires, the International Prostate Symptom Score and Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, and they also underwent uroflowmetry, evaluating max flow rate ( Q max), voiding time and voided volume values.


          A total of 83 patients (43 males, mean age of 59.8 ± 13.3 years) were enrolled. Our study showed 28 males and 10 females with a significant reduction of Q max (P < 0.001) while 21 females reported a significant increase of Q max (P < 0.001) with a prevalence of 49.5% of functional urological disease. Moreover, we showed a significant association between Q max and creatinine (P = 0.013), estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.029) and voiding volume (P = 0.05). We have not shown significant associations with age (P = 0.215), body mass index (P = 0.793), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.642) or diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.305). Moreover, Pearson’s chi-squared test showed a significant association between Q max altered with CKD (χ 2  = 1.885, P = 0.170) and recurrent infection (χ 2 = 8.886, P = 0.012), while we have not shown an association with proteinuria (χ 2 = 0.484, P = 0.785), diabetes (χ 2 = 0.334, P = 0.563) or hypertension (χ 2 = 1.885, P = 0.170).


          We showed an elevated prevalence of urological diseases in nephropathic patients; therefore, we suggest to include uroflowmetry in CKD patient assessment, considering the non-invasiveness, repeatability and low cost of examination. Uroflowmetry could be used to identify previously unrecognized urological diseases, which may prevent the onset of CKD or progression to end-stage renal disease and reduce the costs of management.

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          Most cited references 23

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          The American Urological Association symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

          A symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was developed and validated by a multidisciplinary measurement committee of the American Urological Association (AUA). Validation studies were conducted involving a total of 210 BPH patients and 108 control subjects. The final AUA symptom index includes 7 questions covering frequency, nocturia, weak urinary stream, hesitancy, intermittence, incomplete emptying and urgency. On revalidation, the index was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and the score generated had excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.92). Scores were highly correlated with subjects' global ratings of the magnitude of their urinary problem (r = 0.65 to 0.72) and powerfully discriminated between BPH and control subjects (receiver operating characteristic area 0.85). Finally, the index was sensitive to change, with preoperative scores decreasing from a mean of 17.6 to 7.1 by 4 weeks after prostatectomy (p < 0.001). The AUA symptom index is clinically sensible, reliable, valid and responsive. It is practical for use in practice and for inclusion in research protocols.
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            ICIQ: a brief and robust measure for evaluating the symptoms and impact of urinary incontinence.

            To develop and evaluate the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ), a new questionnaire to assess urinary incontinence and its impact on quality of life (QoL). A developmental version of the questionnaire was produced following systematic literature review and views of an expert committee and patients. Several studies were undertaken to evaluate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire, including content, construct and convergent validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. The ICIQ was easily completed, with low levels of missing data (mean 1.6%). It was able to discriminate among different groups of individuals, indicating good construct validity. Convergent validity was acceptable, with most items demonstrating 'moderate' to 'strong' agreement with other questionnaires. Reliability was good, with 'moderate' to 'very good' stability in test-retest analysis and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.95. Items identified statistically significant reductions in symptoms from baseline following surgical and conservative treatment. Item reduction techniques were used to determine the final version and scoring scheme, which also demonstrated good psychometric properties. The final ICIQ comprises three scored items and an unscored self-diagnostic item. It allows the assessment of the prevalence, frequency, and perceived cause of urinary incontinence, and its impact on everyday life. The ICIQ is a brief and robust questionnaire that will be of use in outcomes and epidemiological research as well as routine clinical practice. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Chronic kidney disease in children: the global perspective

              In contrast to the increasing availability of information pertaining to the care of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from large-scale observational and interventional studies, epidemiological information on the incidence and prevalence of pediatric CKD is currently limited, imprecise, and flawed by methodological differences between the various data sources. There are distinct geographic differences in the reported causes of CKD in children, in part due to environmental, racial, genetic, and cultural (consanguinity) differences. However, a substantial percentage of children develop CKD early in life, with congenital renal disorders such as obstructive uropathy and aplasia/hypoplasia/dysplasia being responsible for almost one half of all cases. The most favored end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment modality in children is renal transplantation, but a lack of health care resources and high patient mortality in the developing world limits the global provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and influences patient prevalence. Additional efforts to define the epidemiology of pediatric CKD worldwide are necessary if a better understanding of the full extent of the problem, areas for study, and the potential impact of intervention is desired.

                Author and article information

                Clin Kidney J
                Clin Kidney J
                Clinical Kidney Journal
                Oxford University Press
                June 2019
                27 September 2018
                27 September 2018
                : 12
                : 3
                : 414-419
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrical-Gynecological Sciences and Urologic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
                [5 ]Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Hospital ICOT Latina, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                [6 ]Department of Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence and offprint requests to: Silvia Lai; E-mail: silvia.lai@
                © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact

                Page count
                Pages: 6


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