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      Review of the North American fauna of Drymeia Meigen (Diptera, Muscidae) and evaluation of DNA barcodes for species-level identification in the genus

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          Abstract

          The North American fauna of Drymeia Meigen was studied. Four new species are described ( Drymeia hucketti sp. nov., Drymeia ponti sp. nov., Drymeia vockerothi sp. nov., Drymeia woodorum sp. nov.), and three new synonymies are proposed: Drymeia amnicola (Huckett, 1966) (= Drymeia rivalis (Huckett, 1966), syn. nov.); Drymeia glacialis (Rondani, 1866) (= Drymeia alpicola (Rondani, 1871), syn. nov.); and Drymeia spinitarsis (Aldrich, 1918) (= Drymeia longiseta Sorokina & Pont, 2015, syn. nov.). An annotated checklist, DNA barcodes (when available), and keys for each sex of the 24 named species of North American Drymeia are provided. The utility of DNA barcodes for the identification of Drymeia species across a wide geographical range was explored using sequences from five countries. A match between morphology and DNA barcodes was found for 71% (22/31) of species studied (including three unnamed taxa). The remaining nine species clustered into two groups of taxa with very little interspecific variation within clusters (groups of two and seven species). Caution is advised against using DNA barcoding as the only determination tool for Drymeia material without prior knowledge of its limitations for certain species groups.

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          Most cited references 48

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Critical factors for assembling a high volume of DNA barcodes.

            Large-scale DNA barcoding projects are now moving toward activation while the creation of a comprehensive barcode library for eukaryotes will ultimately require the acquisition of some 100 million barcodes. To satisfy this need, analytical facilities must adopt protocols that can support the rapid, cost-effective assembly of barcodes. In this paper we discuss the prospects for establishing high volume DNA barcoding facilities by evaluating key steps in the analytical chain from specimens to barcodes. Alliances with members of the taxonomic community represent the most effective strategy for provisioning the analytical chain with specimens. The optimal protocols for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification of the barcode region depend strongly on their condition, but production targets of 100K barcode records per year are now feasible for facilities working with compliant specimens. The analysis of museum collections is currently challenging, but PCR cocktails that combine polymerases with repair enzyme(s) promise future success. Barcode analysis is already a cost-effective option for species identification in some situations and this will increasingly be the case as reference libraries are assembled and analytical protocols are simplified.
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              Biogeographical regionalisation of the Neotropical region

               Juan Morrone (2014)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                15 March 2021
                : 1024
                : 31-89
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada Bishop’s University Sherbrooke Canada
                [2 ] Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630091, Russia Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Novosibirsk Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jade Savage ( jsavage@ 123456ubishops.ca )

                Academic editor: P. Cerretti

                Article
                60393
                10.3897/zookeys.1024.60393
                7985133
                Jade Savage, Vera S. Sorokina

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada 501100000038 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100000038
                Categories
                Research Article
                Muscidae
                Catalogues and Checklists
                Faunistics & Distribution
                Identification key
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Neogene
                North America

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