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      On Hydrangea peruviana , an endangered species from Ecuador, and Hydrangea oerstedii , very common in Costa Rica and Panama, and seven threatened Central and South American Hydrangeas, which have been confounded with these

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          Hydrangea section Cornidia , currently consisting of 19 accepted taxa, occurs from Mexico to Chile and Argentina, with one species in southeast Asia. Its representatives are root-climbing lianas which may grow up to 60 m high in the tree canopy of temperate to (sub)tropical forests. Our extensive field work throughout its distribution area, study of herbarium specimens and ongoing molecular studies have resulted in the discovery of species new to science, as well as new insights into the circumscription of many taxa. We here present amended descriptions for seven Hydrangea species of Central and South America and discuss the taxonomical situation of two Colombian Hydrangeas , including an identification key, illustrations, and distribution maps. Field work was carried out in Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador and Peru, including exploration in areas where the genus had not been collected before. These specimens and observations were complemented with the study of specimens of 41 herbaria of North, Central and South America, as well as Europe. Detailed morphological studies of all species were carried out, based on living plants in their natural habitat, as well as on dried specimens from our own collections and all available herbarium material. Type material was studied in detail for all species concerned. Based on an extensive number of morphological characters, combined with distribution patterns, phenological differences and ecological preferences, including molecular data in most cases, Hydrangea peruviana and H. oerstedii are clearly distinct taxa, as well as the other seven species mentioned here, which had been synonymized with either of these two species. The present study results in the recognition of 26 species in section Cornidia and exemplifies the urgent need for profound taxonomic studies in plants, as in many families we do not dispose of well-circumscribed units for conservation to mitigate the already occurring unprecedented loss of biodiversity.

          Translated abstract


          Hydrangea sección Cornidia , que actualmente consiste en 19 taxones aceptados, se distribuye desde México hasta Chile y Argentina, con una especie en el sureste asiático. Sus representantes son lianas trepadoras que pueden crecer hasta 60 m de altura en la copa de los árboles de los bosques templados a (sub)tropicales. Nuestro extenso trabajo de campo en toda su área de distribución, la revisión de especímenes de herbario y los estudios moleculares en curso han dado como resultado el descubrimiento de especies nuevas para la ciencia, así como conocimiento nuevo sobre la circunscripción de muchos taxones. Aquí presentamos descripciones enmendadas para siete especies de Hydrangea de Centro y Suramérica y discutimos la situación taxonómica de dos Hydrangeas colombianas, incluyendo una clave de identificación, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución. El trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo en Costa Rica, Panamá, Ecuador y Perú, incluída la exploración en áreas donde el género no había sido recolectado antes. Estos especímenes y observaciones se complementaron con el estudio de especímenes de 41 herbarios de Norte, Centro y Suramérica, así como de Europa. Se llevaron a cabo estudios morfológicos detallados de todas las especies, basados ​​en plantas vivas en su hábitat natural, así como en muestras secas de nuestras propias colecciones y todo el material de herbario disponible. El material tipo se estudió en detalle para todas las especies en cuestión. En base a una gran cantidad de caracteres morfológicos, combinados con patrones de distribución, diferencias fenológicas y preferencias ecológicas, incluyendo datos moleculares en la mayoría de los casos, Hydrangea peruviana y H. oerstedii son taxones claramente distintos, así como las otras siete especies mencionadas aquí, que habían sido sinonimizadas con cualquiera de estas dos especies. El presente estudio resulta en el reconocimiento de 26 especies en la sección Cornidia y ejemplifica la necesidad urgente de estudios taxonómicos profundos en plantas, ya que en muchas familias no disponemos de unidades de conservación bien circunscritas para mitigar la pérdida de biodiversidad sin precedentes.

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          Most cited references 24

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          International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

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            Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool

            Abstract GeoCAT is an open source, browser based tool that performs rapid geospatial analysis to ease the process of Red Listing taxa. Developed to utilise spatially referenced primary occurrence data, the analysis focuses on two aspects of the geographic range of a taxon: the extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO). These metrics form part of the IUCN Red List categories and criteria and have often proved challenging to obtain in an accurate, consistent and repeatable way. Within a familiar Google Maps environment, GeoCAT users can quickly and easily combine data from multiple sources such as GBIF, Flickr and Scratchpads as well as user generated occurrence data. Analysis is done with the click of a button and is visualised instantly, providing an indication of the Red List threat rating, subject to meeting the full requirements of the criteria. Outputs including the results, data and parameters used for analysis are stored in a GeoCAT file that can be easily reloaded or shared with collaborators. GeoCAT is a first step toward automating the data handling process of Red List assessing and provides a valuable hub from which further developments and enhancements can be spawned.
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              A genome-scale mining strategy for recovering novel rapidly-evolving nuclear single-copy genes for addressing shallow-scale phylogenetics in Hydrangea

              Background Identifying orthologous molecular markers that potentially resolve relationships at and below species level has been a major challenge in molecular phylogenetics over the past decade. Non-coding regions of nuclear low- or single-copy markers are a vast and promising source of data providing information for shallow-scale phylogenetics. Taking advantage of public transcriptome data from the One Thousand Plant Project (1KP), we developed a genome-scale mining strategy for recovering potentially orthologous single-copy markers to address low-scale phylogenetics. Our marker design targeted the amplification of intron-rich nuclear single-copy regions from genomic DNA. As a case study we used Hydrangea section Cornidia, one of the most recently diverged lineages within Hydrangeaceae (Cornales), for comparing the performance of three of these nuclear markers to other “fast” evolving plastid markers. Results Our data mining and filtering process retrieved 73 putative nuclear single-copy genes which are potentially useful for resolving phylogenetic relationships at a range of divergence depths within Cornales. The three assessed nuclear markers showed considerably more phylogenetic signal for shallow evolutionary depths than conventional plastid markers. Phylogenetic signal in plastid markers increased less markedly towards deeper evolutionary divergences. Potential phylogenetic noise introduced by nuclear markers was lower than their respective phylogenetic signal across all evolutionary depths. In contrast, plastid markers showed higher probabilities for introducing phylogenetic noise than signal at the deepest evolutionary divergences within the tribe Hydrangeeae (Hydrangeaceae). Conclusions While nuclear single-copy markers are highly informative for shallow evolutionary depths without introducing phylogenetic noise, plastid markers might be more appropriate for resolving deeper-level divergences such as the backbone relationships of the Hydrangeaceae family and deeper, at which non-coding parts of nuclear markers could potentially introduce noise due to elevated rates of evolution. The herein developed and demonstrated transcriptome based mining strategy has a great potential for the design of novel and highly informative nuclear markers for a range of plant groups and evolutionary scales. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-015-0416-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                26 January 2021
                : 171
                : 91-153
                [1 ] Red de Diversidad Biológica del Occidente Mexicano, Instituto de Ecología, A.C., 61600 Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Mexico
                [2 ] Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, Mexico City, Mexico
                [3 ] Herbario Nacional de México, Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, Mexico City, Mexico
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Marie-Stéphanie Samain ( mariestephanie.samain@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: S. Knapp

                Marie-Stéphanie Samain, Carolina Granados Mendoza, Esteban Manuel Martínez Salas

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Bijzonder Onderzoeksfonds of the Ghent University, Belgium, the Research Foundation Flanders, the Systematics Association and private funds of the first author and of Rita Carron, Gent, Belgium
                Research Article
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Floristics & Distribution
                Identification key
                Central America and the Caribbean
                South America

                Plant science & Botany

                taxonomy, peru, neotropics, lianas, hortensia, functional dioecism, ecuador, conservation


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