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      Optimal settings and advantages of drones as a tool for canopy arthropod collection

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          Abstract

          The growing field of aeroecology is limited by difficulties associated with sampling in the air column. Aerial insects are particularly hard to sample, despite being the main prey in the air column, with some recent studies attempting to use drones as a collection method. We conducted a study to determine the optimal drone settings for collecting insects above the canopy, where drones are seldom used. By attaching a net to the body of a small, commercial drone, we tested yield from different height, speed, and net settings in wetlands, as well as compared insect diversity across different habitat canopies. Height was the most important setting; grazing the canopy yielded significantly more insects than flying one meter above it. Speed, drone type, and net size did not influence the number of insects caught per trial. Wetland canopies had higher abundance, diversity, and species richness in its arthropod populations compared to forest canopies or lakes. Compared to the yield of Lindgren funnels—a traditional sampling method in entomology—drones captured higher diversity and abundance of insects in a fraction of the time. This study confirms that drones are an efficient and accurate way to collect canopy arthropods.

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          lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models

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            Insect Declines in the Anthropocene

            Insect declines are being reported worldwide for flying, ground, and aquatic lineages. Most reports come from western and northern Europe, where the insect fauna is well-studied and there are considerable demographic data for many taxonomically disparate lineages. Additional cases of faunal losses have been noted from Asia, North America, the Arctic, the Neotropics, and elsewhere. While this review addresses both species loss and population declines, its emphasis is on the latter. Declines of abundant species can be especially worrisome, given that they anchor trophic interactions and shoulder many of the essential ecosystem services of their respective communities. A review of the factors believed to be responsible for observed collapses and those perceived to be especially threatening to insects form the core of this treatment. In addition to widely recognized threats to insect biodiversity, e.g., habitat destruction, agricultural intensification (including pesticide use), climate change, and invasive species, this assessment highlights a few less commonly considered factors such as atmospheric nitrification from the burning of fossil fuels and the effects of droughts and changing precipitation patterns. Because the geographic extent and magnitude of insect declines are largely unknown, there is an urgent need for monitoring efforts, especially across ecological gradients, which will help to identify important causal factors in declines. This review also considers the status of vertebrate insectivores, reporting bias, challenges inherent in collecting and interpreting insect demographic data, and cases of increasing insect abundance.
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              Positive interactions in communities.

              Current concepts of the role of interspecific interactions in communities have been shaped by a profusion of experimental studies of interspecific competition over the past few decades. Evidence for the importance of positive interactions - facilitations - in community organization and dynamics has accrued to the point where it warrants formal inclusion into community ecology theory, as it has been in evolutionary biology. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jamie.madden@mail.mcgill.ca
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                26 October 2022
                26 October 2022
                2022
                : 12
                : 18008
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.14709.3b, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8649, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, , McGill University, ; Montreal, Canada
                [2 ]GRID grid.14709.3b, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8649, Lyman Entomological Museum, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, , McGill University, ; Montreal, Canada
                Article
                22446
                10.1038/s41598-022-22446-z
                9606009
                36289247
                d23f5ad0-c84f-4c58-b388-c75d0396b06c
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 4 May 2022
                : 14 October 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100014507, Molson Foundation;
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                Uncategorized
                ecology,biodiversity,conservation biology
                Uncategorized
                ecology, biodiversity, conservation biology

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