1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Global patterns of terrestriality in amphibian reproduction

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 29

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Book: not found

          The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

            Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Regression analysis of spatial data.

              Many of the most interesting questions ecologists ask lead to analyses of spatial data. Yet, perhaps confused by the large number of statistical models and fitting methods available, many ecologists seem to believe this is best left to specialists. Here, we describe the issues that need consideration when analysing spatial data and illustrate these using simulation studies. Our comparative analysis involves using methods including generalized least squares, spatial filters, wavelet revised models, conditional autoregressive models and generalized additive mixed models to estimate regression coefficients from synthetic but realistic data sets, including some which violate standard regression assumptions. We assess the performance of each method using two measures and using statistical error rates for model selection. Methods that performed well included generalized least squares family of models and a Bayesian implementation of the conditional auto-regressive model. Ordinary least squares also performed adequately in the absence of model selection, but had poorly controlled Type I error rates and so did not show the improvements in performance under model selection when using the above methods. Removing large-scale spatial trends in the response led to poor performance. These are empirical results; hence extrapolation of these findings to other situations should be performed cautiously. Nevertheless, our simulation-based approach provides much stronger evidence for comparative analysis than assessments based on single or small numbers of data sets, and should be considered a necessary foundation for statements of this type in future.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Global Ecology and Biogeography
                Global Ecol Biogeogr
                Wiley
                1466-822X
                1466-8238
                February 21 2019
                June 2019
                January 28 2019
                June 2019
                : 28
                : 6
                : 744-756
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departamento de Ecologia, Centro de Biociências Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Natal Rio Grande do Norte Brazil
                [2 ]Departamento de Botânica e Zoologia, Centro de Biociências Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte Natal Rio Grande do Norte Brazil
                [3 ]State Key Laboratory of Biological Control and School of Life Sciences Sun Yat‐sen University Guangzhou China
                [4 ]Biology Department University of La Verne California
                [5 ]Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences Auburn University at Montgomery Montgomery Alabama
                Article
                10.1111/geb.12886
                © 2019

                Comments

                Comment on this article