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      Beyond RGD: virus interactions with integrins

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          Abstract

          Viruses successfully infect host cells by initially binding to the surfaces of the cells, followed by an intricate entry process. As multifunctional heterodimeric cell-surface receptor molecules, integrins have been shown to usefully serve as entry receptors for a plethora of viruses. However, the exact role(s) of integrins in viral pathogen internalization has yet to be elaborately described. Notably, several viruses harbor integrin-recognition motifs displayed on viral envelope/capsid-associated proteins. The most common of these motifs is the minimal peptide sequence for binding integrins, RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp), which is known for its role in virus infection via its ability to interact with over half of the more than 20 known integrins. Not all virus-integrin interactions are RGD-dependent, however. Non-RGD-binding integrins have also been shown to effectively promote virus entry and infection as well. Such virus-integrin binding is shown to facilitate adhesion, cytoskeleton rearrangement, integrin activation, and increased intracellular signaling. Also, we have attempted to discuss the role of carbohydrate moieties in virus interactions with receptor-like host cell surface integrins that drive the process of internalization. As much as possible, this article examines the published literature regarding the role of integrins in terms of virus infection and virus-encoded glycosylated proteins that mediate interactions with integrins, and it explores the idea of targeting these receptors as a therapeutic treatment option.

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          Most cited references 157

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          Receptor binding and membrane fusion in virus entry: the influenza hemagglutinin.

          Hemagglutinin (HA) is the receptor-binding and membrane fusion glycoprotein of influenza virus and the target for infectivity-neutralizing antibodies. The structures of three conformations of the ectodomain of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza virus HA have been determined by X-ray crystallography: the single-chain precursor, HA0; the metastable neutral-pH conformation found on virus, and the fusion pH-induced conformation. These structures provide a framework for designing and interpreting the results of experiments on the activity of HA in receptor binding, the generation of emerging and reemerging epidemics, and membrane fusion during viral entry. Structures of HA in complex with sialic acid receptor analogs, together with binding experiments, provide details of these low-affinity interactions in terms of the sialic acid substituents recognized and the HA residues involved in recognition. Neutralizing antibody-binding sites surround the receptor-binding pocket on the membrane-distal surface of HA, and the structures of the complexes between neutralizing monoclonal Fabs and HA indicate possible neutralization mechanisms. Cleavage of the biosynthetic precursor HA0 at a prominent loop in its structure primes HA for subsequent activation of membrane fusion at endosomal pH (Figure 1). Priming involves insertion of the fusion peptide into a charged pocket in the precursor; activation requires its extrusion towards the fusion target membrane, as the N terminus of a newly formed trimeric coiled coil, and repositioning of the C-terminal membrane anchor near the fusion peptide at the same end of a rod-shaped molecule. Comparison of this new HA conformation, which has been formed for membrane fusion, with the structures determined for other virus fusion glycoproteins suggests that these molecules are all in the fusion-activated conformation and that the juxtaposition of the membrane anchor and fusion peptide, a recurring feature, is involved in the fusion mechanism. Extension of these comparisons to the soluble N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein complex of vesicle fusion allows a similar conclusion.
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            Integrin-regulated FAK-Src signaling in normal and cancer cells.

            Integrins can alter cellular behavior through the recruitment and activation of signaling proteins such as non-receptor tyrosine kinases including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src that form a dual kinase complex. The FAK-Src complex binds to and can phosphorylate various adaptor proteins such as p130Cas and paxillin. In normal cells, multiple integrin-regulated linkages exist to activate FAK or Src. Activated FAK-Src functions to promote cell motility, cell cycle progression and cell survival. Recent studies have found that the FAK-Src complex is activated in many tumor cells and generates signals leading to tumor growth and metastasis. As both FAK and Src catalytic activities are important in promoting VEGF-associated tumor angiogenesis and protease-associated tumor metastasis, support is growing that FAK and Src may be therapeutically relevant targets in the inhibition of tumor progression.
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              Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses

              Key Points Crosstalk between pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by dendritic cells orchestrates T helper (TH) cell differentiation through the induction of specific cytokine expression profiles, tailored to invading pathogens. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have an important role in orchestrating the induction of signalling pathways that regulate adaptive immune responses. CLRs can control adaptive immunity at various levels by inducing signalling on their own, through crosstalk with other PRRs or by inducing carbohydrate-specific signalling pathways. DC-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) interacts with mannose-carrying pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, HIV-1, measles virus and Candida albicans to activate the serine/threonine protein kinase RAF1. RAF1 signalling leads to the acetylation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65 and affects cytokine expression, such as inducing the upregulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10). DC-associated C-type lectin 1 (dectin 1) triggering by a broad range of fungal pathogens, such as C. albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Pneumocystis carinii, results in protective antifungal immunity through the crosstalk of two independent signalling pathways — one through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and one through RAF1 — that are essential for the expression of TH1 and TH17 cell polarizing cytokines. Crosstalk between the SYK and RAF1 pathways is both synergistic and antagonizing to fine-tune NF-κB activity: although Ser276 phosphorylation of p65 leads to enhanced transcriptional activity of p65 itself through acetylation, it also inhibits the transcriptional activity of the NF-κB subunit RELB by sequestering it in p65–RELB dimers, which are transcriptionally inactive. The diversity in CLR-mediated signalling provides some major challenges for the researches to elucidate and manipulate the signalling properties of this exciting family of receptors. However, the recent advances strongly support the use of CLR targeting vaccination strategies using dendritic cells to induce or redirect adaptive immune responses as well as improve antigen delivery.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (252)744-2702 , akulas@ecu.edu
                Journal
                Arch Virol
                Arch. Virol
                Archives of Virology
                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                0304-8608
                1432-8798
                1 September 2015
                2015
                : 160
                : 11
                : 2669-2681
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.255364.3, ISNI 0000000121910423, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brody School of Medicine, , East Carolina University, ; Greenville, NC 27834 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.411303.4, ISNI 0000000121556022, Faculty of Science, , Al Azhar University, ; Assiut Branch, Assiut, 71524 Egypt
                [3 ]Brucellosis Research Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Egypt
                Article
                2579
                10.1007/s00705-015-2579-8
                7086847
                26321473
                d2634a28-8b92-42ac-b4a8-36a692265170
                © Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

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                © Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

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