Contradictory data are reported in the literature concerning the diffusion kinetics of inorganic phosphates (iPh) between red blood cells and plasma during haemodialysis. Accordingly, we performed mass balance and equilibration studies to analyze the diffusion kinetics of iPh in vivo and in vitro. Mass balance analysis shows that iPh is only cleared from the plasma volume and thus that it practically does not diffuse from red blood cells to plasma during the short time lapse of blood transit through the haemodialyzer. In vitro equilibration studies of blood drawn at the filter outlet show that at room temperature there is a slow, limited, and almost linear net efflux of iPh during the 4 h that follow blood drawing. Our results point out: (1) that the in vivo clearance of iPh should be exclusively determined as plasma clearance, and (2) that for accurate clearance determinations the iPh concentrations should be measured in blood samples centrifuged within at most 1 h after blood drawing. Whole-blood clearance determinations – as well as the in vitro dialyzer data – largely overestimate (>30%) the real in vivo dialyzer performance.