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      Contribution to the knowledge of male and female eremochaetid flies in the late Cretaceous amber of Burma (Diptera, Brachycera, Eremochaetidae)

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      Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          A new and a previously known species of the genus Zhenia Q. Zhang, 2016 (Eremochaetidae) are illustrated and described based on two males and a female in amber: Zhenia burmensis sp. nov. and Z. xiai Q. Zhang, 2016. The male Z. xiai is the first male of this species recorded. The relationships of Archisargoidea (including Eremochaetidae, Zhenia) are reassessed based on male genitalia. The superfamily is more likely related to the Stratiomyomorpha than to the Muscomorpha (including Nemestrinoidea). The components and structures of the ovipositor are re-illustrated. The results of our comparative study demonstrate that the ovipositor of Zhenia is similar in shape and detail to that of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Tephritidae). This study concludes that the ovipositor of Zhenia is most likely formed from abdominal eighth and ninth segments instead of the cerci, as a previous study found.

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          Diptera as parasitoids.

          Parasitoids in the insect order Diptera include an estimated 16,000 species, or approximately 20% of the total number of species with this life-style. Parasitoids in this order are exceedingly diverse in both their habits and evolutionary origins, which makes them an underutilized but highly suitable group for quantitative studies of character convergence and adaptive radiation. This review focuses on several aspects of the bionomics of dipteran parasitoids that have received little comprehensive treatment, including processes associated with host location and attack, patterns of host use, and the evolutionary and ecological consequences of host-parasitoid interactions. Throughout the review we contrast the patterns found within the parasitic Diptera against those found in the better studied parasitic Hymenoptera. We conclude that more intensive study of dipteran parasitoids is required before we can understand the general conditions that favor the evolution of insect parasitoids and the truly magnifying themes of their behavior and ecology.
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            TACHINIDAE: evolution, behavior, and ecology.

            Tachinidae are one of the most diverse and ecologically important families in the order Diptera. As parasitoids, they are important natural enemies in most terrestrial ecological communities, particularly as natural enemies of larval Lepidoptera. Despite their diversity and ecological impact, relatively little is known about the evolution and ecology of tachinids, and what is known tends to be widely dispersed in specialized reports, journals, or texts. In this review we synthesize information on the evolutionary history, behavior, and ecology of tachinids and discuss promising directions for future research involving tachinids. We provide an overview of the phylogenetic history and geographic diversity of tachinids, examine the evolution of oviposition strategies and host associations, review known mechanisms of host location, and discuss recent studies dealing with the ecological interactions between tachinids and their hosts. In doing so, we highlight ways in which investigation of these parasitoids provides insight into such topics as biogeographic patterns of diversity, the evolution of ecological specialization, the tritrophic context of enemy-herbivore interactions, and the role of host location behavior in shaping host range.
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              The implications of function on the origin and homologies of the dipterous wing

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift
                DEZ
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-1324
                1435-1951
                June 14 2019
                June 14 2019
                : 66
                : 1
                : 75-83
                Article
                10.3897/dez.66.33914
                © 2019

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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