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      Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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      The Open Dentistry Journal

      Bentham Open

      Oral squamous cell carcinoma, overview.

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis.

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          Most cited references 53

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          A genetic explanation of Slaughter's concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications.

          The concept of "field cancerization" was first introduced by Slaughter et al. [D. P, Slaughter et al., Cancer (Phila.), 6: 963-968, 1953] in 1953 when studying the presence of histologically abnormal tissue surrounding oral squamous cell carcinoma. It was proposed to explain the development of multiple primary tumors and locally recurrent cancer. Organ systems in which field cancerization has been described since then are: head and neck (oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx), lung, vulva, esophagus, cervix, breast, skin, colon, and bladder. Recent molecular findings support the carcinogenesis model in which the development of a field with genetically altered cells plays a central role. In the initial phase, a stem cell acquires genetic alterations and forms a "patch," a clonal unit of altered daughter cells. These patches can be recognized on the basis of mutations in TP53, and have been reported for head and neck, lung, skin, and breast cancer. The conversion of a patch into an expanding field is the next logical and critical step in epithelial carcinogenesis. Additional genetic alterations are required for this step, and by virtue of its growth advantage, a proliferating field gradually displaces the normal mucosa. In the mucosa of the head and neck, as well as the esophagus, such fields have been detected with dimensions of >7 cm in diameter, whereas they are usually not detected by routine diagnostic techniques. Ultimately, clonal divergence leads to the development of one or more tumors within a contiguous field of preneoplastic cells. An important clinical implication is that fields often remain after surgery of the primary tumor and may lead to new cancers, designated presently by clinicians as "a second primary tumor" or "local recurrence," depending on the exact site and time interval. In conclusion, the development of an expanding preneoplastic field appears to be a critical step in epithelial carcinogenesis with important clinical consequences. Diagnosis and treatment of epithelial cancers should not only be focused on the tumor but also on the field from which it developed.
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            Betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption related to oral cancer in Taiwan.

            A hospital-based case-control study of matched pairs was conducted to explore (a) the relationship between the use of betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and oral cancer and (b) synergism between these factors. The case group consisted of 104 male and 3 female oral cancer patients and these were compared with 194 male and 6 female matched controls. We found by univariate analysis that alcohol consumption, smoking, betel quid chewing, educational level and occupation were associated with oral cancer. The adjusted odds ratios were to be found elevated in patients who were smoking and betel quid chewing. After adjusting for education and occupation covariates, the incidence of oral cancer was computed to be 123-fold higher in patients who smoked, drank alcohol and chewed betel quid than in abstainers. The synergistic effects of alcohol, tobacco smoke and betel quid in oral cancer were clearly demonstrated, but there was a statistically significant association between oral cancer and betel quid chewing alone. Swallowing betel quid juice (saliva extract of betel quid produced by chewing) or including unripened betel fruit in the quid both seemed to enhance the risks of contracting oral cancer.
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              Genetic progression model for head and neck cancer: implications for field cancerization.

              A genetic progression model of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has not yet been elucidated, and the genetic basis for "field cancerization" of the aerodigestive tract has also remained obscure. Eighty-seven lesions of the head and neck, including preinvasive lesions and benign lesions associated with carcinogen exposure, were tested using microsatellite analysis for allelic loss at 10 major chromosomal loci which have been defined previously. The spectrum of chromosomal loss progressively increased at each histopathological step from benign hyperplasia to dysplasia to carcinoma in situ to invasive cancer. Adjacent areas of tissue with different histopathological appearance shared common genetic changes, but the more histopathologically advanced areas exhibited additional genetic alterations. Abnormal mucosal cells surrounding preinvasive and microinvasive lesions shared common genetic alterations with those lesions and thus appear to arise from a single progenitor clone. Based on these findings, the local clinical phenomenon of field cancerization seems to involve the expansion and migration of clonally related preneoplastic cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Open Dent J
                Open Dent J
                TODENTJ
                The Open Dentistry Journal
                Bentham Open
                1874-2106
                10 August 2012
                2012
                : 6
                : 126-130
                Affiliations
                Oral Medicine/Pathology Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
                Author notes
                [* ]Address correspondence to this author at the Aristotle University, Dept. of Oral Medicine/Pathology, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece; Tel: +30 2310 999523; Fax: +30 2319 999532; E-mail: anmark@ 123456dent.auth.gr
                Article
                TODENTTJ-6-126
                10.2174/1874210601206010126
                3428647
                22930665
                © Anastasios K. Markopoulos; Licensee Bentham Open.

                This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Article

                Dentistry

                overview., oral squamous cell carcinoma

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