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      Evaluation of Growth and Health Performance of Juvenile Tilapia Oreochromis sp. Fed with Various Supplementation of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus plantarum


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          Thus, this research was conducted to evaluate the supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum at higher dosages and investigate the effect of heat-killed L. plantarum supplementation on the challenges of Streptococcus agalactiae. A feeding trial was conducted for 90 (initial average body weight of 12.52–12.69 g) days, while a disease challenge was conducted for 17 days. Dietary treatments were formulated to have a ranging level of heat-killed L. plantarum L-137: (1) control treatment without heat-killed L. plantarum, (2) diet containing 10 mg/kg heat-killed L. plantarum L-137 preparation (LP20, which contains 20% heat-killed L. plantarum L-137), (3) diet containing 20 mg/kg LP20, (4) diet containing 100 mg/kg LP20, and (5) diet containing 250 mg/kg LP20. All the diets were formulated to have equal values of protein and energy. Dietary supplementation of heat-killed L. plantarum L-137 improved tilapia growth performance and higher robustness against S. agalactiae infection. Therefore, a 10–20 mg/kg LP20 feed supplementation level is recommended to support the tilapia growth. In addition, an LP20 dietary supplementation level of 250 mg/kg feed is recommended for higher protection against S. agalactiae.

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          The role of probiotics in aquaculture.

          The increase of productivity in aquaculture has been accompanied by ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in production cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in aquaculture, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.
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            Probiotics and immunity: a fish perspective.

            Probiotics are usually live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefits on host. Nowadays, probiotics are also becoming an integral part of the aquaculture practices to obtain high production. The common probiotics that are used for aquaculture practices include Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Carnobacterium, Shewanella, Bacillus, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Saccharomyces species. The involvement of probiotics in nutrition, disease resistance and other beneficial activities in fish has proven beyond any doubt. Among the numerous health benefits attributed to probiotics, modulation of immune system is one of the most commonly purported benefits of the probiotics and their potency to stimulate the systemic and local immunity under in vitro and in vivo conditions is noteworthy. Different probiotics either monospecies or multispecies supplementation can eventually elevate phagocytic, lysozyme, complement, respiratory burst activity as well as expression of various cytokines in fish. Similarly, probiotics can stimulate the gut immune system of fish with marked increase in the number of Ig(+) cells and acidophilic granulocytes. Furthermore, mono-bacterial association studies (with non-probiotic bacterial strains) in gnotobiotic fish also indicate the up-regulation of various immune related genes. Though the exact mode of action of probiotics is yet to be established in any animal including fish, probiotics often exert host specific and strain specific differences in their activities. Various factors like source, type, dose and duration of supplementation of probiotics can significantly affect the immunomodulatory activity of probiotics. The review is therefore, aiming to highlight the immunomodulatory activity of probiotics and also to evaluate the factors that regulate for the optimum induction of immune responses in fish. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood


                Author and article information

                Aquac Nutr
                Aquac Nutr
                Aquaculture Nutrition
                22 August 2023
                : 2023
                : 8860364
                1Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
                2House Wellness Foods Corporation, Hyogo, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Yanjiao Zhang

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Julie Ekasari et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 14 December 2022
                : 9 July 2023
                : 13 July 2023
                Funded by: House Wellness Food Cooperation
                Research Article


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