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      A synthesis on cave-dwelling spiders in Europe

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          The cave environment.

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            Can we agree on an ecological classification of subterranean animals?

            Boris Sket (2008)
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              Evolution in caves: Darwin's 'wrecks of ancient life' in the molecular era.

              Cave animals have historically attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists because of their bizarre 'regressive' characters and convergent evolution. However, understanding of their biogeographic and evolutionary history, including mechanisms of speciation, has remained elusive. In the last decade, molecular data have been obtained for subterranean taxa and their surface relatives, which have allowed some of the classical debates on the evolution of cave fauna to be revisited. Here, we review some of the major studies, focusing on the contribution of phylogeography in the following areas: biogeographic history and the relative roles of dispersal and vicariance, colonization history, cryptic species diversity and modes of speciation of cave animals. We further consider the limitations of current research and prospects for the future. Phylogeographic studies have confirmed that cave species are often cryptic, with highly restricted distributions, but have also shown that their divergence and potential speciation may occur despite the presence of gene flow from surface populations. Significantly, phylogeographic studies have provided evidence for speciation and adaptive evolution within the confines of cave environments, questioning the assumption that cave species evolved directly from surface ancestors. Recent technical developments involving 'next generation' DNA sequencing and theoretical developments in coalescent and population modelling are likely to revolutionize the field further, particularly in the study of speciation and the genetic basis of adaptation and convergent evolution within subterranean habitats. In summary, phylogeographic studies have provided an unprecedented insight into the evolution of these unique fauna, and the future of the field should be inspiring and data rich. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research
                J Zool Syst Evol Res
                Wiley
                09475745
                August 2018
                August 2018
                December 04 2017
                : 56
                : 3
                : 301-316
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology; University of Torino; Turin Italy
                [2 ]Finnish Museum of Natural History; University of Helsinki; Helsinki Finland
                [3 ]Biodiversity Research Institute and Department of Animal Biology; University of Barcelona; Barcelona Spain
                [4 ]Ruđer Bošković Institute; Zagreb Croatia
                [5 ]Croatian Biospeleological Society; Zagreb Croatia
                Article
                10.1111/jzs.12201
                d278f239-ada1-48f7-9151-4aaff383fc06
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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