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      Molecular Polymorphism of Native Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Is Restricted to Mammalian GnRH and [Hydroxyproline 9] GnRH in the Developing Rat Brain

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          Abstract

          Although chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-II is thought to occur in most animal species, its presence and that of two other variants (lamprey GnRH-III, salmon GnRH) is questionable in rodents. Here we report on the GnRH peptides present in the hypothalamus and the remaining brain of rat of both sexes during development. No immunoreactivity was detected in the elution zone of either native or hydroxylated forms of the above three variants in any of brain extracts chromatographed. The main peptides detected were mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) and m[hydroxyproline<sup>9</sup>]GnRH (mHypGnRH). In the hypothalamus, these peptides were associated with their free acid and precursor forms. N-terminal fragments from both native decapeptides ([1–5]GnRH) and mGnRH ([1–9]GnRH) were observed only in the hypothalamus. C-terminal fragments were detected in both tissues. The relative proportions of mGnRH and mHypGnRH showed no developmental changes in the remaining brain. The hypothalamic proportions of mHypGnRH were high on day 5, and decreased from day 15 onwards. The [Gly<sup>11</sup>]-precursor to mHypGnRH molar ratio was twofold lower than with the non-hydroxylated peptides. The mGnRH to [1–9]GnRH molar ratio increased in males but decreased in females during development. No sex-related differences were observed in the native decapeptide to [1–5]GnRH molar ratio. It was concluded that (1) chicken GnRH-II is not present in all mammals, (2) mGnRH and mHypGnRH are the main GnRH isoforms present in the rat brain, (3) the processing of [Gly<sup>11</sup>]-precursor into mHypGnRH occurs at a higher rate than that of mGnRH, and (4) the catabolism does not interfere with the developmental changes undergone by the mGnRH and mHypGnRH brain contents.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Structure of the porcine LH- and FSH-releasing hormone. I. The proposed amino acid sequence.

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            Primary Structure of the Ovine Hypothalamic Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Factor (LRF)

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              Two populations of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons in the forebrain of the rhesus macaque during embryonic development.

              To investigate the possibility that a second luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) population appears during development in primates, embryos and fetal brains of rhesus monkeys were immunostained with antisera specific to different LHRH forms. Two LHRH cell populations were discernible by immunoreactivity to antisera LR-1 and GF-6. Because one LHRH cell type migrated out from the olfactory placode several days earlier than the other, they were referred to as "early" and "late" LHRH cells, respectively. Although late LHRH neurons were immunoreactive to all anti-mammalian LHRH antisera tested, early LHRH neurons were only detected by antiserum GF-6. Early LHRH neurons (approximately 10 x 7 microm) were smaller than late LHRH neurons (approximately 18 x 7 microm). Early LHRH neurons were first found around the olfactory placode, in the nasal mesenchyme, and in the rostroventral forebrain on embryonic day 30 (E30), whereas late LHRH neurons were first seen in the olfactory pit on E32. Early LHRH cells were located throughout the basal forebrain on E32-E42, whereas late LHRH cells were found in the olfactory pit and along the terminal nerve on E34-E36 and were not seen in the forebrain until E38. By E51-E62, late LHRH neurons reached into the basal hypothalamus in a distribution resembling that in the older brain, while early LHRH neurons were found in the septum, preoptic region, stria terminalis, medial amygdala, claustrum, internal capsule, and globus pallidus. Based on the distribution pattern of immunopositive cells with antiserum LR-1, late LHRH cells are bona fide LHRH neurons that regulate the pituitary-gonadal axis. In contrast, the molecular form of early LHRH cells is unclear, although it is plausible that early LHRH cells may contain the molecule in which the C-terminal epitope of LHRH is modified or absent. It is concluded that in primates there is a second population of LHRH neurons that originates from the embryonic olfactory placode before the origin of mammalian LHRH-like neurons, and that these two populations of LHRH-immunopositive neurons have different morphologic features and different final distributions in the brain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2005
                July 2005
                06 July 2005
                : 81
                : 2
                : 69-86
                Affiliations
                Interactions Cellulaires Neuroendocriniennes (UMR 6544) CNRS, Université de la Méditerranée, IFR Jean Roche, Faculté de Médecine Nord, Marseille, France
                Article
                84896 Neuroendocrinology 2005;81:69–86
                10.1159/000084896
                15809516
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 7, References: 51, Pages: 18
                Categories
                Original Paper

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