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Protecting the Environment for Self-interested Reasons: Altruism Is Not the Only Pathway to Sustainability

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      Abstract

      Concerns for environmental issues are important drivers of sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, and can be differentiated between those with a self-enhancing (egoistic) vs. self-transcendent (biospheric) psychological foundation. Yet to date, the dominant approach for promoting pro-environmental behavior has focused on highlighting the benefits to others or nature, rather than appealing to self-interest. Building on the Inclusion Model for Environmental Concern, we argue that egoistic and biospheric environmental concerns, respectively, conceptualized as self-interest and altruism, are hierarchically structured, such that altruism is inclusive of self-interest. Three studies show that self-interested individuals will behave more pro-environmentally when the behavior results in a personal benefit (but not when there is exclusively an environmental benefit), while altruistic individuals will engage in pro-environmental behaviors when there are environmental benefits, and critically, also when there are personal benefits. The reported findings have implications for programs and policies designed to promote pro-environmental behavior, and for social science research aimed at understanding human responses to a changing environment.

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      A power primer.

       Todd J. Cohen (1992)
      One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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        The Family of Ln2Ti2S2O5 Compounds (Ln=Nd Sm Gd Tb Dy Ho Er and Y) Optical Properties

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          Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions.

          Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Department of Business and Management, LUISS Guido Carli University Rome, Italy
            2Department of Social and Developmental Psychology, Sapienza Università di Roma Rome, Italy
            3CIRPA – Interuniversity Research Centre for Environmental Psychology, Sapienza Università di Roma Rome, Italy
            4Department of Psychology, California State University San Marcos, San Marcos CA, United States
            Author notes

            Edited by: Patrik Sörqvist, Gävle University College, Sweden

            Reviewed by: John Thøgersen, Aarhus University, Denmark; AndréHansla, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

            *Correspondence: Stefano De Dominicis, stefano.dedominicis@ 123456uniroma1.it

            This article was submitted to Environmental Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Psychol
            Front Psychol
            Front. Psychol.
            Frontiers in Psychology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1664-1078
            28 June 2017
            2017
            : 8
            5487490 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01065
            Copyright © 2017 De Dominicis, Schultz and Bonaiuto.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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            Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 74, Pages: 13, Words: 0
            Categories
            Psychology
            Original Research

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