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      Selektive C-C-Bindungsspaltung zur stereoselektiven Synthese acyclischer Systeme

      , , ,

      Angewandte Chemie

      Wiley

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          The atom economy--a search for synthetic efficiency.

           B. Trost (1991)
          Efficient synthetic methods required to assemble complex molecular arrays include reactions that are both selective (chemo-, regio-, diastereo-, and enantio-) and economical in atom count (maximum number of atoms of reactants appearing in the products). Methods that involve simply combining two or more building blocks with any other reactant needed only catalytically constitute the highest degree of atom economy. Transition metal-catalyzed methods that are both selective and economical for formation of cyclic structures, of great interest for biological purposes, represent an important starting point for this long-term goal. The limited availability of raw materials, combined with environmental concerns, require the highlighting of these goals.
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            Metal-organic cooperative catalysis in C-H and C-C bond activation and its concurrent recovery.

            The development of an efficient catalytic activation (cleavage) system for C-H and C-C bonds is an important challenge in organic synthesis, because these bonds comprise a variety of organic molecules such as natural products, petroleum oils, and polymers on the earth. Among many elegant approaches utilizing transition metals to activate C-H and C-C bonds facilely, chelation-assisted protocols based on the coordinating ability of an organic moiety have attracted great attention, though they have often suffered from the need for an intact coordinating group in a substrate. In this Account, we describe our entire efforts to activate C-H or C-C bonds adjacent to carbonyl groups by employing a new concept of metal-organic cooperative catalysis (MOCC), which enables the temporal installation of a 2-aminopyridyl group into common aldehydes or ketones in a catalytic way. Consequently, a series of new catalytic reactions such as alcohol hydroacylation, oxo-ester synthesis, C-C triple bond cleavage, hydrative dimerization of alkynes, and skeletal rearrangements of cyclic ketones was realized through MOCC. In particular, in the quest for an optimized MOCC system composed of a Wilkinson's catalyst (Ph 3P) 3RhCl and an organic catalyst (2-amino-3-picoline), surprising efficiency enhancements could be achieved when benzoic acid and aniline were introduced as promoters for the aldimine formation process. Furthermore, a notable accomplishment of C-C bond activation has been made using 2-amino-3-picoline as a temporary chelating auxiliary in the reactions of unstrained ketones with various terminal olefins and Wilkinson's catalyst. In the case of seven-membered cyclic ketones, an interesting ring contraction to five- or six-membered ones takes place through skeletal rearrangements initiated by the C-C bond activation of MOCC. On the other hand, the fundamental advances of these catalytic systems into recyclable processes could be achieved by immobilizing both metal and organic components using a hydrogen-bonded self-assembled system as a catalyst support. This catalyst-recovery system provides a homogeneous phase at high temperature during the reaction and a heterogeneous phase at room temperature after the reaction. The product could be separated conveniently from the self-assembly support system by decanting the upper layer. The immobilized catalysts of both 2-aminopyridine and rhodium metal species sustained high catalytic activity for up to the eight catalytic reactions. In conclusion, the successful incorporation of an organocatalytic cycle into a transition metal catalyzed reaction led us to find MOCC for C-H and C-C bond activation. In addition, the hydrogen-bonded self-assembled support has been developed for an efficient and effective recovery system of homogeneous catalysts and could be successful in immobilizing both metal and organic catalysts.
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              Transition Metal-Mediated Cycloaddition Reactions.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Angewandte Chemie
                Angew. Chem.
                Wiley
                00448249
                January 07 2015
                January 07 2015
                September 29 2014
                : 127
                : 2
                : 424-439
                Article
                10.1002/ange.201405067
                © 2014
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