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      Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in pediatric kidney-transplant recipients - a national study.

      Pediatric Transplantation

      Adolescent, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Graft Rejection, Graft Survival, Humans, Immunosuppressive Agents, therapeutic use, Infant, Israel, Kidney Transplantation, adverse effects, Lymphoproliferative Disorders, diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, Male, Pediatrics, methods, Postoperative Period, Prevalence, Registries, Renal Insufficiency, complications, therapy, Risk, T-Lymphocytes, cytology, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome

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          PTLD is the most common malignancy in pediatric kidney-transplant recipients. We examined the prevalence, clinical features, and outcome of PTLD in Israel. Twelve (4.4%) of 272 pediatric (<19 yr) kidney-transplant recipients retrieved from a search of the NIKTR for 1991-2008 had acquired PTLD at a median of 3.2 yr post-transplantation. PTLD-affected patients were younger at transplantation (4.2 vs. 12.5 yr, p = 0.02), had a higher rate of OKT3 therapy for acute rejection (25% vs. 4%, p = 0.015), and 5/12 were EBV-seropositive at transplantation. Graft dysfunction was the presenting sign in six (50%). PTLD was predominantly abdominal (83%) and B-cell type (67%); T-cell PTLD occurred exclusively in EBV-seropositive patients. Treatment consisted of immunosuppression cessation (6/12, 50%), antiviral agents (7/12, 58%), anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (4/12, 33%), and chemotherapy (6/12, 50%). Survival was 100% in the EBV-naïve patients and 40% in the EBV-seropositive patients. Graft loss occurred in three of eight survivors (37.5%). PTLD-associated mortality risk was older age: 11.2 vs. 3.4 yr, longer dialysis: 15 vs. 6.5 months, T-cell type disease (75%), later PTLD onset: 6.35 vs. 1.9 yr post-transplantation and era of transplantation (43% mortality before vs. 20% after 2001). Pretransplantation EBV-seronegative status might confer a survival benefit with early detected PTLD. EBV-seropositive patients are at risk for aggressive late-onset lethal PTLD. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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