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      Of Mice and Fungi: Coccidioides spp. Distribution Models


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          The continuous increase of Coccidioidomycosis cases requires reliable detection methods of the causal agent, Coccidioides spp., in its natural environment. This has proven challenging because of our limited knowledge on the distribution of this soil-dwelling fungus. Knowing the pathogen’s geographic distribution and its relationship with the environment is crucial to identify potential areas of risk and to prevent disease outbreaks. The maximum entropy (Maxent) algorithm, Geographic Information System (GIS) and bioclimatic variables were combined to obtain current and future potential distribution models (DMs) of Coccidioides and its putative rodent reservoirs for Arizona, California and Baja California. We revealed that Coccidioides DMs constructed with presence records from one state are not well suited to predict distribution in another state, supporting the existence of distinct phylogeographic populations of Coccidioides. A great correlation between Coccidioides DMs and United States counties with high Coccidioidomycosis incidence was found. Remarkably, under future scenarios of climate change and high concentration of greenhouse gases, the probability of habitat suitability for Coccidioides increased. Overlap analysis between the DMs of rodents and Coccidioides, identified Neotoma lepida as one of the predominant co-occurring species in all three states. Considering rodents DMs would allow to implement better surveillance programs to monitor disease spread.

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          WorldClim 2: new 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas

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            Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions

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              The global distribution and burden of dengue

              Dengue is a systemic viral infection transmitted between humans by Aedes mosquitoes 1 . For some patients dengue is a life-threatening illness 2 . There are currently no licensed vaccines or specific therapeutics, and substantial vector control efforts have not stopped its rapid emergence and global spread 3 . The contemporary worldwide distribution of the risk of dengue virus infection 4 and its public health burden are poorly known 2,5 . Here we undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue occurrence worldwide, and use a formal modelling framework to map the global distribution of dengue risk. We then pair the resulting risk map with detailed longitudinal information from dengue cohort studies and population surfaces to infer the public health burden of dengue in 2010. We predict dengue to be ubiquitous throughout the tropics, with local spatial variations in risk influenced strongly by rainfall, temperature and the degree of urbanisation. Using cartographic approaches, we estimate there to be 390 million (95 percent credible interval 284-528) dengue infections per year, of which 96 million (67-136) manifest apparently (any level of clinical or sub-clinical severity). This infection total is more than three times the dengue burden estimate of the World Health Organization 2 . Stratification of our estimates by country allows comparison with national dengue reporting, after taking into account the probability of an apparent infection being formally reported. The most notable differences are discussed. These new risk maps and infection estimates provide novel insights into the global, regional and national public health burden imposed by dengue. We anticipate that they will provide a starting point for a wider discussion about the global impact of this disease and will help guide improvements in disease control strategies using vaccine, drug and vector control methods and in their economic evaluation. [285]

                Author and article information

                J Fungi (Basel)
                J Fungi (Basel)
                Journal of Fungi
                27 November 2020
                December 2020
                : 6
                : 4
                : 320
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Centro de Investigación Científica y Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ctra. Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Ensenada, Baja California 22860, Mexico; pamela.ocampo@ 123456outlook.com
                [2 ]Academic Unit of Ensenada, Universidad Tecnológica de Tijuana, Ctra. a la Bufadora KM. 1, Maneadero Parte Alta, Ensenada, Baja California 22790, Mexico; eaton.gonzalez@ 123456uttijuana.edu.mx
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: riquelme@ 123456cicese.mx
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 15 October 2020
                : 25 November 2020

                coccidioides spp.,distribution modeling,maxent,gis,biological variables


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