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      Removal of a Horizontally Displaced Dental Implant below the Mandibular Canal


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          A clinical case of a horizontally displaced dental implant, which moved below the level of the mandibular canal during surgery is presented together with a brief review of the comparable published cases. The bone mineral density and the morphology of the alveolar ridge were analyzed at the site of osteotomy, and the low bone density of 265.32 ± 86.41 Hounsfield Units was found in the area. The factors related to implant displacement were: the anatomical features of bone structure, and the applied mechanical pressure during the implant insertion. The displacement of the dental implant below the level of the mandibular canal during implantation can be a severe complication. Its removal requires the safest surgical approach to avoid damaging the inferior alveolar nerve. The description of one clinical case does not provide grounds for drawing definite conclusions. To avoid similar incidents, detailed radiographic assessment before implantation is necessary; it is also important to follow the surgical protocols of implant placement into soft bone and to create conditions for a good visibility and sufficient control of bleeding during surgery.

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          Most cited references35

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          Quantitative evaluation of bone density using the Hounsfield index.

          The primary aims of this retrospective study were to: (1) evaluate bone quality in different segments of the edentulous jaw and correlate it with demographic data and (2) establish a quantitative and objective assessment of bone quality based on the Hounsfield scale. One hundred one randomly selected computerized tomographic (CT) scans were used for the analysis. Edentulous segments ranging from 10 to 30 mm were selected for evaluation, and the findings were analyzed and correlated to demographics. Implant recipient sites were evaluated visually for bone classification by 2 independent examiners. The same sites were subsequently evaluated digitally using the Hounsfield scale, and the results were correlated with the visual classification. The 4 quadrants of the mouth displayed Hounsfield unit (HU) values ranging from -240 HU to 1,159 HU. The highest unit/mean density value (559 +/- 208 HU) was found in the anterior mandible, followed by 517 +/- 177 HU for the anterior maxilla, 333 +/- 199 HU for the posterior maxilla, and 321 +/- 132 HU for the posterior mandible. There was no association between the Hounsfield value and density and age or gender. When subjective bone quality was correlated to Hounsfield index findings, only the relationship between HU and type 4 bone was found to be significant. Knowledge of the Hounsfield value as a quantitative measurement of bone density can be helpful as a diagnostic tool. It can provide the implant surgeon with an objective assessment of bone density, which could result in modification of surgical techniques or extended healing time, especially in situations where poor bone quality is suspected.
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            Effects of Condensation on Peri-implant Bone Density and Remodeling

            Bone condensation is thought to densify interfacial bone and thus improve implant primary stability, but scant data substantiate either claim. We developed a murine oral implant model to test these hypotheses. Osteotomies were created in healed maxillary extraction sites 1) by drilling or 2) by drilling followed by stepwise condensation with tapered osteotomes. Condensation increased interfacial bone density, as measured by a significant change in bone volume/total volume and trabecular spacing, but it simultaneously damaged the bone. On postimplant day 1, the condensed bone interface exhibited microfractures and osteoclast activity. Finite element modeling, mechanical testing, and immunohistochemical analyses at multiple time points throughout the osseointegration period demonstrated that condensation caused very high interfacial strains, marginal bone resorption, and no improvement in implant stability. Collectively, these multiscale analyses demonstrate that condensation does not positively contribute to implant stability.
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              Bone quality evaluation: comparison of cone beam computed tomography and subjective surgical assessment.

              To examine the relationship between dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) gray scale values and Hounsfield units (HU), and whether the gray values of edentulous sites correlate with the subjective clinical bone quality assessed at surgery. Two radiographic phantoms containing varying concentrations of either dipotassium hydrogen phosphate or calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) were imaged using multislice CT or CBCT. Reconstructed DICOM data were analyzed to examine the relationship between CBCT gray values and HU. Presurgical CBCT scans from 52 patients who underwent implant placement in the posterior sextants were used. The gray values of the edentulous implant sites were measured and compared with the subjective bone quality assessed at surgery. There was a strong correlation between CBCT gray values and HU. CBCT gray values increased linearly with increasing calcium HA or bone equivalent density material. CBCT gray values measured at edentulous implant sites ranged from -455 to 642, with a trend of decreasing gray values with bone quality type. The median gray values for the four subjective bone types were: 362 (type 1), 214 (type 2), 76 (type 3), and -454 (type 4). CBCT gray values can be used to infer bone density and may provide a valuable aid to predict bone quality at potential implant sites.

                Author and article information

                Case Rep Dent
                Case Rep Dent
                Case Reports in Dentistry
                24 March 2023
                : 2023
                : 6663874
                1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria
                2Denta Puls Clinic, Sofia, Bulgaria
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Asja Celebic

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Khodor Ahmed Fakih et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 29 November 2022
                : 12 January 2023
                : 16 March 2023
                Case Report



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