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Analyzing the efficiency of short-term air quality plans in European cities, using the CHIMERE air quality model

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      Abstract

      Regional and local authorities have the obligation to design air quality plans and assess their impacts when concentration levels exceed the limit values. Because these limit values cover both short- (day) and long-term (year) effects, air quality plans also follow these two formats. In this work, we propose a methodology to analyze modeled air quality forecast results, looking at emission reduction for different sectors (residential, transport, agriculture, etc.) with the aim of supporting policy makers in assessing the impact of short-term action plans. Regarding PM10, results highlight the diversity of responses across European cities, in terms of magnitude and type that raises the necessity of designing area-specific air quality plans. Action plans extended from 1 to 3 days (i.e., emissions reductions applied for 24 and 72 h, respectively) point to the added value of trans-city coordinated actions. The largest benefits are seen in central Europe (Vienna, Prague) while major cities (e.g., Paris) already solve a large part of the problem on their own. Eastern Europe would particularly benefit from plans based on emission reduction in the residential sectors; while in northern cities, agriculture seems to be the key sector on which to focus attention. Transport is playing a key role in most cities whereas the impact of industry is limited to a few cities in south-eastern Europe. For NO2, short-term action plans focusing on traffic emission reductions are efficient in all cities. This is due to the local character of this type of pollution. It is important, however, to stress that these results remain dependent on the selected months available for this study.

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      Most cited references 19

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      CHIMERE 2013: a model for regional atmospheric composition modelling

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        TNO-MACC_II emission inventory; a multi-year (2003–2009) consistent high-resolution European emission inventory for air quality modelling

        Abstract. Emissions to air are reported by countries to EMEP. The emissions data are used for country compliance checking with EU emission ceilings and associated emission reductions. The emissions data are also necessary as input for air quality modelling. The quality of these "official" emissions varies across Europe. As alternative to these official emissions, a spatially explicit high-resolution emission inventory (7 × 7 km) for UNECE-Europe for all years between 2003 and 2009 for the main air pollutants was made. The primary goal was to supply air quality modellers with the input they need. The inventory was constructed by using the reported emission national totals by sector where the quality is sufficient. The reported data were analysed by sector in detail, and completed with alternative emission estimates as needed. This resulted in a complete emission inventory for all countries. For particulate matter, for each source emissions have been split in coarse and fine particulate matter, and further disaggregated to EC, OC, SO 4 , Na and other minerals using fractions based on the literature. Doing this at the most detailed sectoral level in the database implies that a consistent set was obtained across Europe. This allows better comparisons with observational data which can, through feedback, help to further identify uncertain sources and/or support emission inventory improvements for this highly uncertain pollutant. The resulting emission data set was spatially distributed consistently across all countries by using proxy parameters. Point sources were spatially distributed using the specific location of the point source. The spatial distribution for the point sources was made year-specific. The TNO-MACC_II is an update of the TNO-MACC emission data set. Major updates included the time extension towards 2009, use of the latest available reported data (including updates and corrections made until early 2012) and updates in distribution maps.
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          Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

           K He,  Zhao Zhao,  Du Yu-Zhou (2010)
          Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1758 4137, GRID grid.434554.7, , European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Directorate for Energy, Transport and Climate, Air and Climate Unit, ; Via E. Fermi 2749, Ispra, I-21027 VA Italy
            [2 ]Institut National de l’Environment Industriel et des Risques, Verneuil en Halatte, France
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 9291, GRID grid.11843.3f, Laboratoire Image Ville Environnement, , Université de Strasbourg, ; Strasbourg, France
            Contributors
            enrico.pisoni@jrc.ec.europa.eu
            Journal
            Air Qual Atmos Health
            Air Qual Atmos Health
            Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
            Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
            1873-9318
            1873-9326
            10 September 2016
            10 September 2016
            2017
            : 10
            : 2
            : 235-248
            5306338
            427
            10.1007/s11869-016-0427-y
            © The Author(s) 2016

            Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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            © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

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