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      Cyclodextrin Complex Formation with Water-Soluble Drugs: Conclusions from Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and Molecular Modeling


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          Cyclodextrin (CD) complexes are frequently used for enhancing the solubility or absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. On the contrary, little is known about their complex formation with water-soluble drugs. Here, we have studied the interaction between 2-hydroxypropyl β-CD (HPβCD) and three water-soluble drugs, namely naloxone (NX), oxycodone (OC), and tramadol (TR), by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) combined with molecular modeling in view of the potential impact on drug release. The results showed that the complex formation of HPβCD with all three drugs occurs spontaneously. The complexes formed with NX and OC were found to be 2NX:1HPβCD and 3OC:2HPβCD, respectively. TR was found to form 2 complexes with HPβCD; of 1:2 and 1:1 complexation ratios. The binding of HPβCD to NX was greater than to OC due to the higher hydrophobicity of the structure of the former. Moreover, the binding affinity of HPβCD to TR was higher than to OC, which indicated the effect of the higher flexibility of the guest in increasing the binding affinity. In vitro drug release experiments from the various complexes revealed a significant impact of the stoichiometry of the complex on the release profiles. Accordingly, the co-administration of cyclodextrins with water-soluble drugs should be closely monitored, as it may result in unintentional complex formation that can potentially impact the drugs’ gastrointestinal absorption.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1208/s12249-021-02040-8.

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          Most cited references 29

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          UCSF Chimera--a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis.

          The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            AutoDock Vina: improving the speed and accuracy of docking with a new scoring function, efficient optimization, and multithreading.

             Oleg Trott,  Jay Olson (2010)
            AutoDock Vina, a new program for molecular docking and virtual screening, is presented. AutoDock Vina achieves an approximately two orders of magnitude speed-up compared with the molecular docking software previously developed in our lab (AutoDock 4), while also significantly improving the accuracy of the binding mode predictions, judging by our tests on the training set used in AutoDock 4 development. Further speed-up is achieved from parallelism, by using multithreading on multicore machines. AutoDock Vina automatically calculates the grid maps and clusters the results in a way transparent to the user. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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              Development and testing of a general amber force field.

              We describe here a general Amber force field (GAFF) for organic molecules. GAFF is designed to be compatible with existing Amber force fields for proteins and nucleic acids, and has parameters for most organic and pharmaceutical molecules that are composed of H, C, N, O, S, P, and halogens. It uses a simple functional form and a limited number of atom types, but incorporates both empirical and heuristic models to estimate force constants and partial atomic charges. The performance of GAFF in test cases is encouraging. In test I, 74 crystallographic structures were compared to GAFF minimized structures, with a root-mean-square displacement of 0.26 A, which is comparable to that of the Tripos 5.2 force field (0.25 A) and better than those of MMFF 94 and CHARMm (0.47 and 0.44 A, respectively). In test II, gas phase minimizations were performed on 22 nucleic acid base pairs, and the minimized structures and intermolecular energies were compared to MP2/6-31G* results. The RMS of displacements and relative energies were 0.25 A and 1.2 kcal/mol, respectively. These data are comparable to results from Parm99/RESP (0.16 A and 1.18 kcal/mol, respectively), which were parameterized to these base pairs. Test III looked at the relative energies of 71 conformational pairs that were used in development of the Parm99 force field. The RMS error in relative energies (compared to experiment) is about 0.5 kcal/mol. GAFF can be applied to wide range of molecules in an automatic fashion, making it suitable for rational drug design and database searching. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                Author and article information

                AAPS PharmSciTech
                AAPS PharmSciTech
                AAPS PharmSciTech
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                31 August 2021
                31 August 2021
                October 2021
                : 22
                : 7
                [1 ]GRID grid.10388.32, ISNI 0000 0001 2240 3300, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmacy, , University of Bonn, ; Gerhard-Domagk-Str. 3, 53121 Bonn, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.7269.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0621 1570, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, , Ain Shams University, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [3 ]GRID grid.440862.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0377 5514, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, , The British University in Egypt, ; Cairo, Egypt
                [4 ]GRID grid.5613.1, ISNI 0000 0001 2298 9313, PEPITE EA4267, University of Burgundy / Franche-Comté, ; Besançon, France
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funded by: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (1040)
                Research Article
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                © American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2021


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