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      HGF Protects Rat Mesangial Cells from High-Glucose-Mediated Oxidative Stress

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          Background: Oxidative stress has been considered to be a common pathogenetic factor of diabetic nephropathy. Recent observations suggested that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was an antioxidant growth factor; thus, its renoprotective effects in diabetic nephropathy might be related to antioxidant mechanism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether HGF could prevent rat mesangial cells (RMC) from high-glucose-mediated oxidative stress and explore its relevant mechanism. Methods: RMC were cultured in 5.6 m M (NG) or 30 m M (HG) glucose in the absence or presence of HGF (20 ng/ml) and c-met inhibitor SU11274 (5 µ M) for 24 h. Results: c-met expression in HG was markedly increased. Enhanced oxidative stress was observed in HG as evidenced by elevated reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels and decreased glutathione level, which was markedly attenuated by HGF. HGF also inhibited HG-induced p22<sup>phox</sup> and aldose reductase upregulation and prevented HG-reduced glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) expression through inhibiting USF binding to negative regulatory region of GCLC promoter. Reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and expression in RMC by HG was rescued by HGF. Conclusion: HGF could function as an antioxidant factor and protect against HG-mediated oxidative stress by enhancing ROS scavenging and suppressing ROS production.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Reactive oxygen species-regulated signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy.

          Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidney. TGF-beta1 has been identified as the key mediator of ECM accumulation in diabetic kidney. High glucose induces TGF-beta1 in glomerular mesangial and tubular epithelial cells and in diabetic kidney. Antioxidants inhibit high glucose-induced TGF-beta1 and ECM expression in glomerular mesangial and tubular epithelial cells and ameliorate features of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting that oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic renal injury. High glucose induces intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mesangial and tubular epithelial cells. High glucose-induced ROS in mesangial cells can be effectively blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), NADPH oxidase, and mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I, suggesting that PKC, NADPH oxidase, and mitochondrial metabolism all play a role in high glucose-induced ROS generation. Advanced glycation end products, TGF-beta1, and angiotensin II can also induce ROS generation and may amplify high glucose-activated signaling in diabetic kidney. Both high glucose and ROS activate signal transduction cascade (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription) and transcription factors (nuclear factor-kappaB, activated protein-1, and specificity protein 1) and upregulate TGF-beta1 and ECM genes and proteins. These observations suggest that ROS act as intracellular messengers and integral glucose signaling molecules in diabetic kidney. Future studies elucidating various other target molecules activated by ROS in renal cells cultured under high glucose or in diabetic kidney will allow a better understanding of the final cellular responses to high glucose.
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            Direct interaction of the novel Nox proteins with p22phox is required for the formation of a functionally active NADPH oxidase.

            Nox1 and Nox4, homologues of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 (gp91phox) mediate superoxide anion formation in various cell types. However, their interactions with other components of the NADPH oxidase are poorly defined. We determined whether a direct interaction of Nox1 and Nox4 with the p22phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase occurs. Using confocal microscopy, co-localization of p22phox with Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 was observed in transiently transfected vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and HEK293 cells. Plasmids coding for fluorescent fusion proteins of p22phox and the Nox proteins with cyan- and yellow-fluorescent protein (cfp and yfp, respectively) were constructed and expressed in VSMC and HEK293 cells. The cfp-tagged p22phox expression level increased upon cotransfection with Nox1 or Nox4. Protein-protein interaction between the fluorescent fusion proteins of p22phox and the Nox partners was observed using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique. Immunoprecipitation of native Nox1 from human VSMC revealed co-precipitation of p22phox. Immunoprecipitation from transfected HEK293 cells revealed co-precipitation of native p22phox with yfp-tagged Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4. Following mutation of a histidine (corresponding to the position 115 in human Nox2) to leucine, this interaction was abolished. Transfection of rat p22phox (but not Noxo1 and Noxa1) increased the radical generation in cells expressing Nox4. We provide evidence that p22phox directly interacts with Nox1 and Nox4, to form an superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase and demonstrate that mutation of the potential heme binding site in the Nox proteins disrupts the complex formation of Nox1 and Nox4 with p22phox.
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              ROS generation by nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase: potential relevance in diabetic nephropathy.

               Ajay Shah,  Man-Mei Li (2003)
              Oxidative stress has emerged as an important pathogenic factor in the development of long-term complications, such as atherosclerosis and nephropathy, in patients with diabetes. Whereas multiple enzymes and processes can contribute to oxidative stress, recent studies indicate that a multicomponent phagocyte-type NADPH oxidase is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in many nonphagocytic cells, including fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, renal mesangial cells, and tubular cells. Under physiologic conditions, nonphagocytic NADPH oxidases have very low-level constitutive activity. However, enzyme activity can be upregulated both acutely and chronically in response to stimuli such as growth factors, cytokines, high glucose, and hyperlipidemia. ROS production by the oxidase may serve a signaling role or may lead to oxidative damage. This article reviews current knowledge of the nonphagocyte-NADPH oxidases at both structural and biochemical levels and discusses the possible role of these enzymes in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                19 December 2006
                : 26
                : 5
                : 519-530
                Department of Pathology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China
                97368 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:519–530
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 34, Pages: 12
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/97368
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


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