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      Injectable naltrexone, oral naltrexone, and buprenorphine utilization and discontinuation among individuals treated for opioid use disorder in a United States commercially insured population

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      Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
      Elsevier BV

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          <p class="first" id="P2">We investigated prescribing patterns for five opioid use disorder (OUD) medications: 1) injectable naltrexone, 2) oral naltrexone, 3) sublingual or oromucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, 4) sublingual buprenorphine, and 5) transdermal buprenorphine in a nationally representative claims-based database (Truven Health MarketScan®) of commercially insured individuals in the United States. We calculated the prevalence of OUD in the database for each year from 2010 to 2014 and the proportion of diagnosed patient months on OUD medication. We compared characteristics of individuals diagnosed with OUD who did and did not receive OUD medications with bivariate descriptive statistics. Finally, we fit a Cox proportional hazards model of time to discontinuation of therapy as a function of therapy type, controlling for relevant confounders. </p><p id="P3">From 2010 to 2014, the proportion of commercially insured individuals diagnosed with OUD grew by fourfold (0.12% to 0.48%), but the proportion of diagnosed patient-months on OUD medication decreased from 25% in 2010 (0.05% injectable naltrexone, 0.4% oral naltrexone, 23.1% sublingual or oromucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, 1.5% sublingual buprenorphine, and 0% transdermal buprenorphine) to 16% in 2014 (0.2% injectable naltrexone, 0.4% oral naltrexone, 13.8% sublingual or oromucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, 1.4% sublingual buprenorphine, and 0.3% transdermal buprenorphine). Individuals who received medication therapy were more likely to be male, younger, and have an additional substance use disorder compared with those diagnosed with OUD who did not receive medication therapy. Those prescribed injectable naltrexone were more often male, younger, and diagnosed with additional substance use disorders compared with those prescribed other medications for opioid use disorder (MOUDs). The proportion discontinuing MOUD 30 days or less after initiation was 52% for individuals treated with injectable naltrexone, 70% for individuals treated with oral naltrexone, 31% for individuals treated with sublingual or oromucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, 58% for individuals treated with sublingual buprenorphine, and 51% for individuals treated with transdermal buprenorphine. In the Cox proportional hazard model, use of injectable naltrexone, oral naltrexone, sublingual buprenorphine, and transdermal buprenorphine were all associated with significantly greater hazard of discontinuing therapy beginning more than 30 days after MOUD initiation (HR=2.17, 2.54, 1.15, and 2.21, respectively, 95% CIs 2.04–2.30, 2.45–2.64, 1.10–1.19, and 2.11–2.33), compared with the use of sublingual or oromucosal buprenorphine/naloxone. </p><p id="P4">This analysis demonstrates that the use of evidence-based medication therapies has not kept pace with increases in OUD diagnoses in commercially insured populations in the United States. Among those who have been treated, discontinuation rates more than 30 days after initiation are high. The proportion treated with injectable naltrexone, oral naltrexone, and transdermal buprenorphine grew over time but remains small, and the discontinuation rates are higher among those treated with these medications compared with those treated with sublingual or oromucosal buprenorphine/naloxone. In the face of the opioid overdose and addiction crisis, new efforts are needed at the provider, health system, and policy levels so that MOUD availability and uptake keep pace with new OUD diagnoses and OUD treatment discontinuation is minimized. </p>

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          Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
          Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
          Elsevier BV
          February 2018
          February 2018
          : 85
          : 90-96
          © 2018




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