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      Analysis of aerobic exercise influence on intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma: A randomized clinical trial


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          To investigate the change pattern of ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) and intra-ocular pressure (IOP) after short-term and long-term aerobic exercise.


          In this prospective, single-masked, randomized clinical trial, 123 patients with a primary open angle glaucoma that locally used prostaglandin analog alone were randomly divided into the exercise and control groups. In the short-term study, all individuals underwent a cycling exercise at moderate intensity (20% Wmax for 10 minutes) and high intensity (60% Wmax for 5 minutes). During the long-term study, the exercise group is characterized by regular jogging exercise lasting for 30 minutes during 6: 00–10: 00 in the morning for 3 months, with the exercise frequency of at least 20 times per month, and with the intensity reflected by the target heart rate. The control group is designed as a group with irregular exercise.


          After short-term aerobic exercise, IOP significantly decreased, whereas the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) significantly increased. The decreasing amplitude of IOP is related to the baseline of IOP, the intensity of exercise, gender, and so on. After 3 months of long-term exercise, the changes in the IOP level of the exercise group indicated a decreasing trend.


          The significant decrement of IOP and the increment of OPP suggest that aerobic exercise is beneficial for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and appropriate aerobic exercise is appropriate in treating glaucoma patients.

          Trial registration:

          ChiCTR, ChiCTR-TRC-10001055. Registered one October 2010-Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj = 8483

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          Most cited references43

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          Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. Present estimates of global glaucoma prevalence are not up-to-date and focused mainly on European ancestry populations. We systematically examined the global prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and projected the number of affected people in 2020 and 2040. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data from 50 population-based studies (3770 POAG cases among 140,496 examined individuals and 786 PACG cases among 112 398 examined individuals). We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science for population-based studies of glaucoma prevalence published up to March 25, 2013. Hierarchical Bayesian approach was used to estimate the pooled glaucoma prevalence of the population aged 40-80 years along with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). Projections of glaucoma were estimated based on the United Nations World Population Prospects. Bayesian meta-regression models were performed to assess the association between the prevalence of POAG and the relevant factors. Prevalence and projection numbers of glaucoma cases. The global prevalence of glaucoma for population aged 40-80 years is 3.54% (95% CrI, 2.09-5.82). The prevalence of POAG is highest in Africa (4.20%; 95% CrI, 2.08-7.35), and the prevalence of PACG is highest in Asia (1.09%; 95% CrI, 0.43-2.32). In 2013, the number of people (aged 40-80 years) with glaucoma worldwide was estimated to be 64.3 million, increasing to 76.0 million in 2020 and 111.8 million in 2040. In the Bayesian meta-regression model, men were more likely to have POAG than women (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CrI, 1.23-1.52), and after adjusting for age, gender, habitation type, response rate, and year of study, people of African ancestry were more likely to have POAG than people of European ancestry (OR, 2.80; 95% CrI, 1.83-4.06), and people living in urban areas were more likely to have POAG than those in rural areas (OR, 1.58; 95% CrI, 1.19-2.04). The number of people with glaucoma worldwide will increase to 111.8 million in 2040, disproportionally affecting people residing in Asia and Africa. These estimates are important in guiding the designs of glaucoma screening, treatment, and related public health strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020.

            To estimate the number of people with open angle (OAG) and angle closure glaucoma (ACG) in 2010 and 2020. A review of published data with use of prevalence models. Data from population based studies of age specific prevalence of OAG and ACG that satisfied standard definitions were used to construct prevalence models for OAG and ACG by age, sex, and ethnicity, weighting data proportional to sample size of each study. Models were combined with UN world population projections for 2010 and 2020 to derive the estimated number with glaucoma. There will be 60.5 million people with OAG and ACG in 2010, increasing to 79.6 million by 2020, and of these, 74% will have OAG. Women will comprise 55% of OAG, 70% of ACG, and 59% of all glaucoma in 2010. Asians will represent 47% of those with glaucoma and 87% of those with ACG. Bilateral blindness will be present in 4.5 million people with OAG and 3.9 million people with ACG in 2010, rising to 5.9 and 5.3 million people in 2020, respectively. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, disproportionately affecting women and Asians.
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              Reduction of intraocular pressure and glaucoma progression: results from the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial.

              To provide the results of the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial, which compared the effect of immediately lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP), vs no treatment or later treatment, on the progression of newly detected open-angle glaucoma. Randomized clinical trial. Two hundred fifty-five patients aged 50 to 80 years (median, 68 years) with early glaucoma, visual field defects (median mean deviation, -4 dB), and a median IOP of 20 mm Hg, mainly identified through a population screening. Patients with an IOP greater than 30 mm Hg or advanced visual field loss were ineligible. Patients were randomized to either laser trabeculoplasty plus topical betaxolol hydrochloride (n = 129) or no initial treatment (n = 126). Study visits included Humphrey Full Threshold 30-2 visual field tests and tonometry every 3 months, and optic disc photography every 6 months. Decisions regarding treatment were made jointly with the patient when progression occurred and thereafter. Glaucoma progression was defined by specific visual field and optic disc outcomes. Criteria for perimetric progression were computer based and defined as the same 3 or more test point locations showing significant deterioration from baseline in glaucoma change probability maps from 3 consecutive tests. Optic disc progression was determined by masked graders using flicker chronoscopy plus side-by-side photogradings. After a median follow-up period of 6 years (range, 51-102 months), retention was excellent, with only 6 patients lost to follow-up for reasons other than death. On average, treatment reduced the IOP by 5.1 mm Hg or 25%, a reduction maintained throughout follow-up. Progression was less frequent in the treatment group (58/129; 45%) than in controls (78/126; 62%) (P =.007) and occurred significantly later in treated patients. Treatment effects were also evident when stratifying patients by median IOP, mean deviation, and age as well as exfoliation status. Although patients reported few systemic or ocular conditions, increases in clinical nuclear lens opacity gradings were associated with treatment (P =.002). The Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial is the first adequately powered randomized trial with an untreated control arm to evaluate the effects of IOP reduction in patients with open-angle glaucoma who have elevated and normal IOP. Its intent-to-treat analysis showed considerable beneficial effects of treatment that significantly delayed progression. Whereas progression varied across patient categories, treatment effects were present in both older and younger patients, high- and normal-tension glaucoma, and eyes with less and greater visual field loss.

                Author and article information

                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian J Ophthalmol
                Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
                Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (India )
                December 2022
                30 November 2022
                : 70
                : 12
                : 4228-4234
                [1 ]Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
                [2 ]Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
                [3 ]Dongfang Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
                [4 ]Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Ying-Xin Yang, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing - 100 010, China. E-mail: yangyingxin@ 123456bjzhongyi.com

                Qiu-Yan Ma, Jian Zhou, and Yu-Xin Xue are the first authors of this work.

                Copyright: © 2022 Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

                This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                : 13 May 2022
                : 29 July 2022
                : 13 September 2022
                Original Article, Special Focus - Glaucoma

                Ophthalmology & Optometry
                aerobic exercise,intra-ocular pressure,ocular perfusion pressure,primary open-angle glaucoma


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