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      Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy-Related Strategies to Avoid Colistin Toxicity: A Clinically Orientated Review

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          Polymyxins are ‘old' antimicrobials which were abandoned for almost 30 years because of significant renal and neurological toxicity. However, the alarming rise in multiresistant Gram-negative bacterial infections worldwide has revived interest in these ‘forgotten' agents. Colistin (polymyxin E) is one of the main antibiotics of this class. It is most often administered as the prodrug colistimethate sodium. Doses for treatment of systemic infections in adults range between 3 and 9 million IU per day. Colistin is increasingly used to treat pneumonia and bacteremia in critically ill patients. During their intensive care unit stay, many of these patients will need continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) because of acute kidney injury or an unstable hemodynamic condition. Based on recent pharmacological data and our own experience, we postulate that patients undergoing CRRT may receive substantially higher doses of colistin (i.e. a high loading dose, followed by a maintenance dose of up to 4.5 million IU t.i.d.). Treatment can be continued for a prolonged time period without increasing toxicity. CRRT counteracts colistin accumulation because the drug is continuously filtered and also significantly adsorbed in the bulk of the dialysis membrane. Implementing such a ‘CRRT rescue' therapy does require the strict use of highly adsorptive dialysis membranes in association with citrate anticoagulation to increase membrane performance.

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          Colistin: the re-emerging antibiotic for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

          Increasing multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, presents a critical problem. Limited therapeutic options have forced infectious disease clinicians and microbiologists to reappraise the clinical application of colistin, a polymyxin antibiotic discovered more than 50 years ago. We summarise recent progress in understanding the complex chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of colistin, the interplay between these three aspects, and their effect on the clinical use of this important antibiotic. Recent clinical findings are reviewed, focusing on evaluation of efficacy, emerging resistance, potential toxicities, and combination therapy. In the battle against rapidly emerging bacterial resistance we can no longer rely entirely on the discovery of new antibiotics; we must also pursue rational approaches to the use of older antibiotics such as colistin.
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            Population pharmacokinetic analysis of colistin methanesulfonate and colistin after intravenous administration in critically ill patients with infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

            Colistin is used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). It is administered intravenously in the form of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), which is hydrolyzed in vivo to the active drug. However, pharmacokinetic data are limited. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of CMS and colistin in a population of critically ill patients. Patients receiving colistin for the treatment of infections caused by MDR-GNB were enrolled in the study; however, patients receiving a renal replacement therapy were excluded. CMS was administered at a dose of 3 million units (240 mg) every 8 h. Venous blood was collected immediately before and at multiple occasions after the first and the fourth infusions. Plasma CMS and colistin concentrations were determined by a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method after a rapid precipitation step that avoids the significant degradation of CMS and colistin. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with the NONMEM program. Eighteen patients (6 females; mean age, 63.6 years; mean creatinine clearance, 82.3 ml/min) were included in the study. For CMS, a two-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics, and the half-lives of the two phases were estimated to be 0.046 h and 2.3 h, respectively. The clearance of CMS was 13.7 liters/h. For colistin, a one-compartment model was sufficient to describe the data, and the estimated half-life was 14.4 h. The predicted maximum concentrations of drug in plasma were 0.60 mg/liter and 2.3 mg/liter for the first dose and at steady state, respectively. Colistin displayed a half-life that was significantly long in relation to the dosing interval. The implications of these findings are that the plasma colistin concentrations are insufficient before steady state and raise the question of whether the administration of a loading dose would benefit critically ill patients.
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              High-volume versus standard-volume haemofiltration for septic shock patients with acute kidney injury (IVOIRE study): a multicentre randomized controlled trial.

              Septic shock is a leading cause of death among critically ill patients, in particular when complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI). Small experimental and human clinical studies have suggested that high-volume haemofiltration (HVHF) may improve haemodynamic profile and mortality. We sought to determine the impact of HVHF on 28-day mortality in critically ill patients with septic shock and AKI. This was a prospective, randomized, open, multicentre clinical trial conducted at 18 intensive care units in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. A total of 140 critically ill patients with septic shock and AKI for less than 24 h were enrolled from October 2005 through March 2010. Patients were randomized to either HVHF at 70 mL/kg/h or standard-volume haemofiltration (SVHF) at 35 mL/kg/h, for a 96-h period. Primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. The trial was stopped prematurely after enrolment of 140 patients because of slow patient accrual and resources no longer being available. A total of 137 patients were analysed (two withdrew consent, one was excluded); 66 patients in the HVHF group and 71 in the SVHF group. Mortality at 28 days was lower than expected but not different between groups (HVHF 37.9 % vs. SVHF 40.8 %, log-rank test p = 0.94). There were no statistically significant differences in any of the secondary endpoints between treatment groups. In the IVOIRE trial, there was no evidence that HVHF at 70 mL/kg/h, when compared with contemporary SVHF at 35 mL/kg/h, leads to a reduction of 28-day mortality or contributes to early improvements in haemodynamic profile or organ function. HVHF, as applied in this trial, cannot be recommended for treatment of septic shock complicated by AKI.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                October 2014
                30 July 2014
                : 37
                : 4
                : 291-295
                aDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and bClinique de L'Europe St. Michel, Brussels, and cDepartment of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk, Belgium; dHaut Leveque University Hospital of Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux 2, Pessac, France
                Author notes
                *Prof. Patrick M. Honoré, MD, PhD, FCCM, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, BE-1090 Brussels (Belgium), E-Mail
                363495 Blood Purif 2014;37:291-295
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Pages: 5
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