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      Regulatory Mechanisms of Na/Pi Cotransporter by Glucocorticoid in Renal Proximal Tubule Cells: Involvement of cAMP and PKC

      , ,

      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

      Protein kinase C, Glucocorticoid, Kidney, Na/Pi cotransport

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          Abstract

          The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of glucocorticoid on Pi uptake were examined in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs). Dexamethasone (DEX, 10<sup>–9</sup> M) inhibited Pi uptake, although aldosterone, a mineralocorticoid, did not affect Pi uptake. Its effect was due to a 23% decrease in the V<sub>max</sub> value. DEX–induced inhibition of Pi uptake was prevented by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, and the glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, progesterone and cortexolone. SQ 22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and the myristoylated protein kinase A inhibitor amide 14–22 (PKI) did not block the DEX–induced inhibition of Pi uptake. Indeed, DEX did not affect cAMP production. However, neomycin and U 73122 (PLC inhibitors), staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide I (PKC inhibitors) blocked the DEX–induced inhibition of Pi uptake. In addition, DEX increased the membrane–bound PKC activity from 2.82±0.21 to 4.16±0.34 pmol/mg protein/min. These findings demonstrate that glucocorticoid inhibits Pi uptake and its effect is genomic and receptor–mediated and the activation of the PLC/PKC pathway is involved in its effect on the PTCs.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Characterization of primary rabbit kidney cultures that express proximal tubule functions in a hormonally defined medium

          Primary cultures of rabbit-kidney epithelial cells derived from purified proximal tubules were maintained without fibroblast overgrowth in a hormone-supplemented serum-free medium (Medium RK-1). A hormone- deletion study indicated that the primary cultures derived from purified rabbit proximal tubules required all of the three supplements in Medium RK-1 (insulin, transferrin, and hydrocortisone) for optimal growth but did not grow in response to EGF and T3. In contrast, the epithelial cells in primary cultures derived from an unpurified preparation of rabbit kidney tubules and glomeruli grew in response to EGF and T3, as well as insulin, transferrin, and hydrocortisone. These observations suggest that kidney epithelial cells derived from different segments of the nephron grow differently in response to hormones and growth factors. Differentiated functions of the primary cultures derived from proximal tubules were examined. Multicellular domes were observed, indicative of transepithelial solute transport by the monolayers. The proximal tubule cultures also accumulated alpha- methylglucoside (alpha-MG) against a concentration gradient. However, little or no alpha-MG accumulation was observed in the absence of Na+. Metabolic inhibitor studies also indicated that alpha-MG uptake by the primaries is an energy-dependent process, and depends upon the activity of the Na+/K+ ATPase. Phlorizin at 0.1 mM significantly inhibited 1 mM alpha-MG uptake whereas 0.1 mM phloretin did not have a significant inhibitory effect. Similar observations have been made concerning the Na+-dependent sugar-transport system located on the lumenal side of the proximal tubule, whereas the Na+-independent sugar transporter on the peritubular side is more sensitive to inhibition by phloretin than phlorizin. The cultures also exhibited PTH-sensitive cyclic AMP synthesis and brush-border enzymes typical of proximal cells. However, the activities of the enzymes leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase were lower in the cultures than in purified proximal-tubule preparations from which they are derived.
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            Dexamethasone induces rapid actin assembly in human endometrial cells without affecting its synthesis.

            Dexamethasone exerts a stimulatory effect of rapid-onset on the polymerization of actin. This has been documented in human endometrial adenocarcinoma Ishikawa cells, resulting in an acute, dose-dependent decrease in the G/total-actin ratio. In the present study we completely characterized this fast and apparently nongenomic effect of dexamethasone on actin assembly. We followed the morphological alterations of actin cytoskeleton and measured the time-dependent dynamics of actin polymerization both by ruling out any changes of total actin in the cells and by measuring its transcript. Rapid changes in actin polymerization were accurately measured using a highly sensitive and quantitative rhodamine-phalloidin fluorimetric assay. Ishikawa cells, exposed to 0.1 microM dexamethasone for various time periods up to 24 h, showed a highly significant, rapid, and transient increase in the polymerization of actin starting within 15 min of dexamethasone exposure and lasting 2 h. Treated cells showed a significant (1.79-fold) enhancement of the fluorescent signal compared to untreated cells at 15 min. This value decreased continuously in a time-dependent manner, reaching control levels after 120 min and remained so for the next 24 h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies confirmed these findings. Intensive coloration of microfilaments over several scanning sections suggested an enhanced degree of actin polymerization in cells preincubated for 15 min with 0.1 microM dexamethasone. Moreover, actin filaments were more resistant to cytochalasin B. Additionally, quantitative immunoblot analysis showed that the content of total cellular actin remained the same during this period, suggesting that the biosynthesis of actin was unaffected. Northern blot analysis showed that the concentration of the actin transcript was also unaffected. Our data suggest that glucocorticoids induce a fast and self-limited polymerization of actin in human endometrial cells without affecting its synthesis. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that glucocorticoids exert rapid, nongenomic cellular effects and that the actin-based cytoskeleton is an integral part of this pathway, playing an essential role in receiving and mediating steroid signals for the modulation of cellular responses.
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              Leukotriene D4 Inhibits Na+ Uptake through cAMP and PLC Pathways in Primary Cultured Renal Proximal Tubular Cells

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2000
                2000
                15 October 1999
                : 23
                : 1
                : 1-9
                Affiliations
                Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hormone Research Center, Chonnam National University, Kwangju, Korea
                Article
                25947 Kidney Blood Press Res 2000;23:1–9
                10.1159/000025947
                10567847
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 3, References: 43, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/25947
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Glucocorticoid, Kidney, Na/Pi cotransport, Protein kinase C

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