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      Cystatin C – A Marker for Assessment of the Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Cisplatin Chemotherapy

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          Background: Cystatin C has recently been proposed as an ideal marker for glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In this study, cystatin C serum levels were evaluated in comparison to serum creatinine concentrations and inulin clearances in patients with normal kidney function receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy to assess the validity of cystatin C as an alternative endogenous marker of GFR. Methods: Blood samples for the assessment of cystatin C, creatinine and inulin clearances were collected in patients before and after application of cisplatin in a clinical trial. Overall, 41 patients were included in the study, 35 of them were eligible receiving cisplatin in two different cisplatin-based chemotherapy schedules. Results: A 21% increase of cystatin C serum levels was demonstrated in the placebo group after application of cisplatin. Analysis of inulin clearances revealed a 23% loss of inulin clearance in patients of the placebo arm. In contrast, significant changes could not be detected by analysis of serum creatinine levels. Conclusions: Cystatin C represents a more sensitive clinical marker than serum creatinine for the early assessment of GFR damage caused by cisplatin. Changes in cystatin C serum concentrations correlate well to GFR decrease as measured by inulin clearance.

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          Detection of renal function decline in patients with diabetes and normal or elevated GFR by serial measurements of serum cystatin C concentration: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

          Research on early renal function decline in diabetes is hampered by lack of simple tools for detecting trends (particularly systematic decreases) in renal function over time when GFR is normal or elevated. This study sought to assess how well serum cystatin C meets that need. Thirty participants with type 2 diabetes in the Diabetic Renal Disease Study met these three eligibility criteria: GFR >20 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline (based on cold iothalamate clearance), 4 yr of follow-up, and yearly measurements of iothalamate clearance and serum cystatin C. With the use of linear regression, each individual's trend in renal function over time, expressed as annual percentage change in iothalamate clearance, was determined. Serum cystatin C in mg/L was transformed to its reciprocal (100/cystatin C), and linear regression was used to determine each individual's trend over time, expressed as annual percentage change. In paired comparisons of 100/cystatin C with iothalamate clearance at each examination, the two measures were numerically similar. More important, the trends in 100/cystatin C and iothalamate clearance were strongly correlated (Spearman r = 0.77). All 20 participants with negative trends in iothalamate clearance (declining renal function) also had negative trends for 100/cystatin C. Results were discordant for only three participants. In contrast, the trends for three commonly used creatinine-based estimates of GFR compared poorly with trends in iothalamate clearance (Spearman r < 0.35). Serial measures of serum cystatin C accurately detect trends in renal function in patients with normal or elevated GFR and provide means for studying early renal function decline in diabetes.
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            Nephroprotection by theophylline in patients with cisplatin chemotherapy: a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

            The aim of the present study was to assess the possible prevention of cisplatin-induced impairment of GFR by theophylline in patients with various malignancies. The trial design was parallel, randomized, single blinded, and placebo controlled. Patients received cisplatin at a dosage of 50 mg/m(2) either combined with etoposide, ifosfamide, and epirubicin or with paclitaxel and 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid with the usual precautions, including a standard hydration scheme before application of cisplatin in both arms. In the control arm, placebo was administered; in the verum arm, patients received theophylline in a loading dose of 4 mg/kg intravenously over 30 min before cisplatin, followed by 0.4 mg/kg per min over a minimum of 6 h, and then 350 mg three times daily orally for 4 consecutive days after completion of chemotherapy. GFR of each patient was assessed by renal clearance of inulin within 3 d before and at day 5 after cisplatin chemotherapy. Despite usual precautions, patients in the placebo group had a 21% decrease (range, 11 to 31%) of inulin clearance after a single cycle of cisplatin-containing chemotherapy (92.9 +/- 3.4 versus 71.8 +/- 3.5 ml/min; P 0.05). No adverse effects have been observed during theophylline application. Conventional precautions such as hydration and osmotic diuresis cannot prevent a significant decrease of GFR after a single cycle of cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. The prophylactic application of theophylline as an intravenous loading dose and oral maintenance regimen may preserve kidney function in terms of GFR.
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              Cystatin C: Efficacy as Screening Test for Reduced Glomerular Filtration Rate

              Serum cystatin C, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, has been proposed as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Serum cystatin C, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were measured in 226 patients with various nephropathies, covering the entire range of renal function, to evaluate the efficacy of cystatin C as a screening test to detect reduced creatinine clearance in comparison to creatinine. Subgroups of 53 patients with glomerular and 26 patients with tubular impairment were compared to assess whether cystatin C performed differently in either glomerular or tubular impairment. Cystatin C detected reduced creatinine clearance with higher sensitivity (97 vs. 83%), and higher negative predictive value (96 vs. 87%) compared to creatinine. In parallel, 95% sensitivity of cystatin C as derived from receiver-operating characteristic plot was significantly higher (p < 0.05). In the subgroups with glomerular or tubular impairment, cystatin C and creatinine did not significantly differ with regard to efficacy. Serum cystatin C is as efficacious as serum creatinine to detect reduced GFR as measured by creatinine clearance. The efficacy of cystatin C as a screening test may even be superior compared to creatinine. In addition, the efficacy of cystatin C is independent of either glomerular or tubular impairment.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                June 2006
                06 June 2006
                : 29
                : 1
                : 32-35
                aDepartment of Nephrology and Rheumatology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen; bDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, and cMedical Center II, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Immunology and Rheumatology, Tübingen, Germany
                92485 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:32–35
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 14, Pages: 4
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