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      Differences in Cardiovascular and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functions between High-Altitude Visitors and Natives during a Trek on the Annapurna Circuit

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          Objective: Differences in the cardiovascular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functions at high altitudes (HAs) between visitors to and natives of HA were examined. Methods: The cardiovascular functions and peripheral oxygen saturation (SPO<sub>2</sub>) were monitored, and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and nighttime cortisol concentration (NCC), as indices of the HPA axis function, were determined in 25 trekkers and 21 Sherpas during an Annapurna circuit trek. Results: SPO<sub>2</sub> decreased less in the Sherpas than in the trekkers at HAs (3,540, 3,800, and 4,800 m). Blood pressure and heart rate in the Sherpas changed concurrently during the trek; however, a tachycardic response occurred without changes in blood pressure in the trekkers at HAs. The CAR and NCC at HAs in the trekkers differed from those observed at 1,100 m and those observed at HAs in the Sherpas. The trekkers exhibited an elevated morning cortisol level at 3,540 and 3,800 m, a heightened CAR at 4,800 m, and an elevated NCC at 3,800 m. Alteration of the CAR resulted in an increase in the integrated volume of cortisol released within the first hour after awakening (CARauc) in the trekkers. The changes in SPO<sub>2</sub> occurred concurrently with the changes in the CARauc and the heart rate in the trekkers. Conclusions: The alterations of CAR occurred at HAs where blood pressure levels reached a peak plateau, which is associated with an increase in heart rate at HAs in the trekkers. The CAR was unaltered in the Sherpas during the trek.

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          Day-to-day dynamics of experience--cortisol associations in a population-based sample of older adults.

          In 156 older adults, day-to-day variations in cortisol diurnal rhythms were predicted from both prior-day and same-day experiences, to examine the temporal ordering of experience-cortisol associations in naturalistic environments. Diary reports of daily psychosocial, emotional, and physical states were completed at bedtime on each of three consecutive days. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at wakeup, 30 min after awakening, and at bedtime each day. Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to estimate diurnal cortisol profiles for each person each day. The parameters defining those profiles (wakeup level, diurnal slope, and cortisol awakening response) were predicted simultaneously from day-before and same-day experiences. Prior-day feelings of loneliness, sadness, threat, and lack of control were associated with a higher cortisol awakening response the next day, but morning awakening responses did not predict experiences of these states later the same day. Same-day, but not prior-day, feelings of tension and anger were associated with flatter diurnal cortisol rhythms, primarily because of their association with higher same-day evening cortisol levels. Although wakeup cortisol levels were not predicted by prior-day levels of fatigue and physical symptoms, low wakeup cortisol predicted higher levels of fatigue and physical symptoms later that day. Results are consistent with a dynamic and transactional function of cortisol as both a transducer of psychosocial and emotional experience into physiological activation and an influence on feelings of energy and physical well-being.
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            Free Cortisol Levels after Awakening: A Reliable Biological Marker for the Assessment of Adrenocortical Activity

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              HIF1 and oxygen sensing in the brain.


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                July 2014
                09 May 2014
                : 99
                : 2
                : 130-138
                Departments of aAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine, and bOrthopedics, The Armed Forces Capital Hospital, cDepartment of Adapted Physical Education, Korea National Sport University, and dGraduate School of Integrative Medicine, CAH Medical University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                *Ryun S. Ahn, Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, CAH Medical University, Seoul 135-907 (Republic of Korea), E-Mail ryunsup@gmail.com
                363367 Neuroendocrinology 2014;99:130-138
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 9
                Original Paper


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