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      Regulation of Hepatocytes in G0 and G1 Phases by NOTCH3 mRNA, miR-369-3p, and rno-Rmdn2_0006 during the Initial Stage of Rat Liver Regeneration


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          The key event of liver regeneration initiation (LRI) is the switch of hepatocytes from the G0 phase to the G1 phase. This study aimed to use the data from large-scale quantitatively detecting and analyzing (LQDA) to reveal the regulation of hepatocytes in the G0 or G1 phase by competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) during LRI. The hepatocytes of the rat liver right lobe were isolated 0, 6, and 24 h after partial hepatectomy. Their ceRNA expression level was measured using LQDA, and the correlation among their expression, interaction, and role was revealed by ceRNA comprehensive analysis. The expression of neurogenic loci notch homologous protein 3 (NOTCH3) mRNA was upregulated in 0 h, but the expression of miR-369-3p and rno-Rmdn2_0006 of hepatocytes did not change significantly. Meanwhile, the expression of the G0 phase-related gene CDKN1c was promoted by NOTCH3 upregulation, and the expression of the G1 phase-related gene PSEN2 was inhibited by NOTCH3 downregulation. On the contrary, the expression of NOTCH3 mRNA and rno-Rmdn2_0006 was upregulated at 6 h, but the expression of miR-136-3p was downregulated. The expression of the G1 phase-related genes CHUK, DDX24, HES1, NET1, and STAT3 was promoted by NOTCH3 upregulation, and the expression of the G0 phase-related gene CDKN1a was inhibited by NOTCH3 downregulation. These results suggested that the ceRNAs and the NOTCH3-regulated G0 phase- and G1 phase-related genes showed a correlation in expression, interaction, and role. They together regulated the hepatocytes in the G0 phase at 0 h and in the G1 phase at 6 h. These findings might help understand the mechanism by which ceRNA together regulated the hepatocytes in the G0 or G1 phase.

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          Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more than 70 selectively conserved miRNA target sites, and it is highly and widely associated with Argonaute (AGO) proteins in a miR-7-dependent manner. Although the circRNA is completely resistant to miRNA-mediated target destabilization, it strongly suppresses miR-7 activity, resulting in increased levels of miR-7 targets. In the mouse brain, we observe overlapping co-expression of ciRS-7 and miR-7, particularly in neocortical and hippocampal neurons, suggesting a high degree of endogenous interaction. We further show that the testis-specific circRNA, sex-determining region Y (Sry), serves as a miR-138 sponge, suggesting that miRNA sponge effects achieved by circRNA formation are a general phenomenon. This study serves as the first, to our knowledge, functional analysis of a naturally expressed circRNA.
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            Liver regeneration: from myth to mechanism.

            The unusual regenerative properties of the liver are a logical adaptation by organisms, as the liver is the main detoxifying organ of the body and is likely to be injured by ingested toxins. The numerous cytokine- and growth-factor-mediated pathways that are involved in regulating liver regeneration are being successfully dissected using molecular and genetic approaches. So what is known about this process at present and which questions remain?
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              Circular RNAs Act as miRNA Sponges.

              Majority of RNAs expressed in animal cells lack protein-coding ability. Unlike other cellular RNAs, circular (circ)RNAs include a large family of noncoding (nc)RNAs that lack the 5' or 3' ends. The improvements in high-throughput RNA sequencing and novel bioinformatics tools have led to the identification of thousands of circRNAs in various organisms. CircRNAs can regulate gene expression by influencing the transcription, the mRNA turnover, and translation by sponging RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs. Given the broad impact of circRNA on miRNA activity, there is huge interest in understanding the impact of miRNA sponging by circRNA on gene regulation. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the miRNA-circRNA interaction and mechanisms that influence gene expression.

                Author and article information

                Genet Res (Camb)
                Genet Res (Camb)
                Genetics Research
                27 April 2023
                : 2023
                : 8779758
                1College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, China
                2State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Cell Differentiation Regulation, Xinxiang, China
                3Stem Cell and Biotherapy Technology Research Center, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China
                4Academy of Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Hongda Liu

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Xiayan Zang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 1 March 2022
                : 17 April 2023
                : 19 April 2023
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 31572270
                Award ID: 81771226
                Award ID: U1804186
                Award ID: U1404312
                Award ID: 31601038
                Award ID: 31201093
                Award ID: 81200317
                Research Article



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