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      A review of telavancin in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI)

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          Abstract

          Telavancin is a novel antibiotic being investigated for the treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) and pneumonia. This once-daily intravenous lipoglycopeptide exerts rapid bactericidal activity via a dual mechanism of action. It is intended for use to combat infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate strains of S. aureus (MRSA and VISA, respectively). Vancomycin is the current gold standard in treating serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, especially MRSA. In recent clinical trials, telavancin has shown excellent efficacy in phase II and III multinational, randomized, double-blinded studies of cSSSI. In the phase II FAST 2 study, which compared telavancin 10 mg/kg intravenously q 24 h vs standard therapy (an antistaphylococcal penicillin at 2 g IV q 6 h or vancomycin 1 gm IV q 12 h), the clinical success rate in the telavancin-treated group was 96% vs 94% in the standard therapy group. In two identical phase III trials comparing telavancin versus vancomycin at the doses of the FAST 2 study for cSSSI, the clinical cure rates were 88.3% and 87.1%, respectively. Two additional phase III clinical trials investigating telavancin for use in hospital-acquired pneumonia, caused by Gram-positive bacteria are currently ongoing. Telavancin is currently under regulatory review in both the United States and Europe for the indication of treatment of cSSSI.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department.

          Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognized in infections among persons in the community without established risk factors for MRSA. We enrolled adult patients with acute, purulent skin and soft-tissue infections presenting to 11 university-affiliated emergency departments during the month of August 2004. Cultures were obtained, and clinical information was collected. Available S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial-susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of toxin genes. On MRSA isolates, we performed typing of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), the genetic element that carries the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance. S. aureus was isolated from 320 of 422 patients with skin and soft-tissue infections (76 percent). The prevalence of MRSA was 59 percent overall and ranged from 15 to 74 percent. Pulsed-field type USA300 isolates accounted for 97 percent of MRSA isolates; 74 percent of these were a single strain (USA300-0114). SCCmec type IV and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin gene were detected in 98 percent of MRSA isolates. Other toxin genes were detected rarely. Among the MRSA isolates, 95 percent were susceptible to clindamycin, 6 percent to erythromycin, 60 percent to fluoroquinolones, 100 percent to rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 92 percent to tetracycline. Antibiotic therapy was not concordant with the results of susceptibility testing in 100 of 175 patients with MRSA infection who received antibiotics (57 percent). Among methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, 31 percent were USA300 and 42 percent contained pvl genes. MRSA is the most common identifiable cause of skin and soft-tissue infections among patients presenting to emergency departments in 11 U.S. cities. When antimicrobial therapy is indicated for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections, clinicians should consider obtaining cultures and modifying empirical therapy to provide MRSA coverage. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus?

             H Chambers (2001)
            Strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which had been largely confined to hospitals and long-term care facilities, are emerging in the community. The changing epidemiology of MRSA bears striking similarity to the emergence of penicillinase-mediated resistance in S. aureus decades ago. Even though the origin (hospital or the community) of the emerging MRSA strains is not known, the prevalence of these strains in the community seems likely to increase substantially.
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              Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical strain with reduced vancomycin susceptibility.

               K Hiramatsu (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                February 2008
                February 2008
                : 4
                : 1
                : 235-244
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, USA
                [2 ]Tulane University School of Medicine USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lala M Dunbar Albert J. Lauro Professor of Medicine/Emergency Medicine, Research Director for Emergency Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Department of Medicine/Emergency Medicine, 2020 Gravier Street, Suite 7D, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA Tel +1 504 903 5044 Email ldunba@ 123456lsuhsc.edu
                Article
                2503659
                18728713
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                vancomycin, telavancin, mrsa

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